Advance care planning (ACP) for people with dementia, as with other diseases, is a necessary process to realize medical treatment and care in the final stage of a person's life. On the other hand, dementia, a disease that is expected to make it difficult for people to make decisions on their own in the future, has a long course, and is characterized by uncertainty regarding the course of the disease, which may also be a limiting factor in the implementation of ACP for people with dementia. On the other hand, the uncertainties may also be a reason for implementing ACP. This paper reviews reports on ACP initiatives for people with dementia from many countries and presents their characteristics, cultural and customary influences, effects, facilitating and inhibiting factors, and recommendations for implementation, with the aim of promoting future ACP initiatives for people with dementia. The aim of the study was to promote future ACP initiatives for people with dementia.
Aim: The present studyinvestigated the roles expected of Dementia Support Doctors (DSDs) in dealing with complex cases.
Methods: The participants were attendees of the education programs organised by the Center for Promoting Dementia Support and the Medical Center for Dementia at the Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital from April 2021 to March 2022. A self-administered postal questionnaire survey was conducted. The questionnaire included items on the basic attributes of the participants, their experiences with the issues associated with complex cases, and role expectations of consulting/collaboration partners when dealing with complex cases.
Results: The valid response rate was 49.3%. DSDs were expected by primary physicians, Community General Support Center staff and administrative staff to diagnose dementia and give advice on support strategies for complex cases. Primary physicians further expected them to initiate pharmacotherapy with anti-dementia drugs and address the pharmacotherapy needs for managing Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia. It was also found that DSDs' experience with complex cases was comparable to that of the staff at the Medical Centers for Dementia. Of note, DSDs were mentioned less frequently as consulting/collaboration partners than Medical Centers for Dementia and primary physicians.
Conclusions: The study showed that DSDs play an important role in dealing with complex cases. The roles of DSDs and ways to collaborate with them need to be communicated through interprofessional education.
Objective: To examine the relationship between a low phase angle (PA) and falls in elderly diabetic patients.
Methods: The subjects were diabetic patients ≥65 years old who were outpatients at Ise Red Cross Hospital. Patients were asked about their fall history using a self-administered questionnaire. The PA was measured by the multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance method, and the subjects were classified into two groups: the first quartile with the smallest PA (T1 group) and the second and third quartiles (T2/3 groups). A logistic regression analysis with falls as the dependent variable, PA as the explanatory variable, and adjustment variables was used to calculate the odds ratio of the PA for falls.
Results: A total of 255 patients were included in the analysis of this study. Of these, 33.3% were in the T1 group, 66.7% were in the T2/3 group, and 28.2% had fallen. The unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for falls in the PA were 2.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-4.07; P=0.004) and 2.34 (95% CI, 1.07-5.09; P=0.031), respectively.
Conclusion: A low PA was associated with falls in elderly diabetic patients.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between loneliness and malnutrition in elderly diabetic patients.
Methods: The subjects were diabetic patients ≥65 years old who were outpatients at Ise Red Cross Hospital. The nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF), and patients were defined as being undernourished if their total score was <11 points. Loneliness was assessed using the Japanese version of the short form of the loneliness scale, a self-administered questionnaire, and a total score of ≥6 was considered to indicate loneliness. A logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio of loneliness to undernutrition, with the dependent variable being undernutrition, the explanatory variable being loneliness, and the adjustment variable being loneliness.
Results: A total of 163 patients were included in the analysis of this study. Of these, 25.8% were lonely, and 33.7% were undernourished. The unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of loneliness to undernutrition were 2.55 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-5.27; P=0.011) and 3.81 (95% CI, 1.27-11.39; P=0.017), respectively.
Conclusion: Loneliness is associated with a low nutritional status in elderly diabetic patients. It is important to alert diabetic patients with loneliness to their low nutritional status when they are diagnosed.
We herein report a 99-year-old woman with hypertension and dyslipidemia. From the beginning of August 20XX, significant edema from the left thigh to the toes had been observed, so she had consulted her previous doctor. She had been suspected of having cellulitis and was given antibiotics, but no improvement in her symptoms was noted, so she was transferred to our hospital. The edema of the lower leg was localized to the left lower leg only, and the D-dimer level was as high as 16.6 μg/mL at her visit to the emergency room, so deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was suspected, and the patient received immediate hospitalization. Continuous administration of undifferentiated heparin was started, and lower extremity venous ultrasound was performed. As a result, central-type DVT extending from the left iliac vein to the common iliac vein bifurcation was observed. However, despite administering inferior vena cava (IVC) filter into under the renal vein, and changing heparin to edoxaban 30 mg, no improvement in the lower limb edema was observed. Therefore, catheter-based thrombolysis (CDT) was started on day 11 of illness, and continuous administration of urokinase was started via the catheter. Heparin and edoxaban were not used in combination in order to reduce the risk of bleeding. The edema gradually improved, and after confirming that the thrombus had completely disappeared on lower extremity venous ultrasound, the catheter was removed on day 14 (day 24 of illness) after starting CDT. The IVC filter was also removed, and prescription of edoxaban 30 mg was restarted. Since the patient had used a walking frame at home, she started rehabilitation from the initiation of CDT therapy and was discharged once she was able to use a self-sustaining portable toilet. The basic treatment for DVT is anticoagulant therapy; however, a large amount of thrombosis was observed in the present case, and no marked improvement was observed with conventional anticoagulant therapy. As the patient was particularly elderly, and considering that it was important to improve the edema promptly in order to maintain her activities of daily living, we performed CDT treatment and concluded that it was very effective in this case. However, the CDT procedure for DVT has yet to be standardized, and there are few cases of CDT treatment, especially for such super-elderly patients. In the current aging society, the incidence of DVT diseases is increasing, and in cases such as the present case, anticoagulation therapy alone and CDT therapy should be considered and implemented after careful consideration of the bleeding risk.
The development and exacerbation of autoimmune diseases following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination have been reported; however, there are few reports of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). A 75-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department 46 days after receiving her third dose of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine because of fatigue and general weakness. Initial laboratory analyses revealed severe hemolytic anemia with positive direct and indirect Coombs test and elevation of serum indirect bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase. The patient had no underlying disease after a close examination and was diagnosed with warm AIHA, which was thought to be associated with COVID-19 vaccination. The anemia improved daily after the administration of prednisolone. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of AIHA being caused by COVID-19 vaccination, and monotherapy with prednisolone should be considered in cases of severe anemia.
A patient in her 90s with rheumatoid arthritis was admitted to the hospital. She was brought to the emergency department with a complaint of a fever and diagnosed with a urinary tract infection on admission, and antimicrobial therapy was started. On day 8 of admission, abdominal ultrasonography revealed a right subphrenic abscess due to cholecystitis with perforation. The patient consulted with the Department of Surgery, but drainage was deemed difficult due to the anatomical location of the gallbladder, and conservative treatment with antibiotics was continued. After two months of intravenous antimicrobial therapy, the abscess shrank, and the patient was discharged from the hospital after switching to oral antimicrobial therapy. At a follow-up visit two weeks after discharge, the abscess was confirmed to have disappeared, the oral antimicrobial therapy was discontinued, with no abscess recurrence noted. The principle of treatment for subphrenic abscess is the administration of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that cover enterobacteria and anaerobes, and drainage at appropriate times. Indeed, drainage is performed in most of the reported cases of subphrenic abscesses. However, in very elderly patients or those in whom puncture is difficult, conservative treatment while carefully checking imaging findings and other potentially involved factors may be an option.
An 81-year-old man was being treated with oral medication for chronic heart failure and epilepsy. He had no history of diabetes, cirrhosis, or gastric surgery. He was admitted to our hospital due to disturbance of consciousness. His blood glucose level was 6 mg/dl, with a relatively high insulin level (14.4 μU/ml). Computed tomography and a 48 h fasting test showed no signs of insulinoma. There were no signs of reactive hypoglycemia, insulin autoimmune syndrome, or adrenal insufficiency. His wife had been taking medication for diabetes, including sulfonylurea. She had dementia, and he managed her medication. Since his medication was found in his wife's medicine box, we considered the possibility that he might have taken sulfonylurea by mistake. We asked his daughter to manage their medicine. However, one month later, he was admitted to our hospital again with severe hypoglycemia. His wife's HbA1c value and estimated glomerular filtration rate were 6.9% and 30 ml/min/1.73 m2. We asked his wife's home doctor to stop sulfonylurea prescription, and the hypoglycemia did not recur, with his wife's level of HbA1c remaining stable.
Elderly individuals and patients with an impaired renal function are prone to hypoglycemia from sulfonylurea. In elderly households, there is a possibility of accidental ingestion of oral hypoglycemic agents by other family members living with the patient. It is therefore necessary to understand and manage the medications of family members living together. It is also important to avoid prescribing medications with a high risk of hypoglycemia to elderly patients.
Introduction: We herein report a case of dyspnea in an older patient with end-stage heart failure and renal insufficiency successfully controlled with high-dose oxycodone plus midazolam.
Case: A 91-year-old womam with end-stage heart failure due to severe aortic stenosis and complete atrio-ventricular block developed dyspnea. We used continuous oxycodone subcutaneous injection instead of morphine for dyspnea due to renal insufficiency. Oxycodone relieved her dyspnea in a dose-dependent manner without serious adverse events. We also carefully administered midazolam for the dyspnea as well.
Conclusion: We used high-dose oxycodone plus midazolam to manage dyspnea in an older patient with end-stage heart failure and renal insufficiency. High-dose oxycodone with midazolam might be useful for treating dyspnea under careful observation.