Due to the special conditions in the pre-and postwar days, the dietary situation of Okinawa has been characterized by high fat (60-80g), low protein (55-65g), and high calory in comparison to that in Japan proper, and is under the specific environment similar to that of Japanese Americans. Accordingly, the research on the actual condition was done concerning the internal outpatients of the hospitals in Kumamoto, Japan as well as Okinawa. 1) Serum total cholesterol levels of the individuals in human dock were 10-15% (200-220mg/dl) greater in each age group for Okinawa than Kumamoto. And the levels of Okinawa resident Japanese women with American citizenship were close to those of American women; second-generation Japanese to those of Japanese living in Okinawa. 2) A slightly greater portion of hypertensives showing over K. W. IIa fundoscopic findings was taken in Kumamoto, while the portion of the complication with retinal hemorrhage exceeded in Okinawa. 3) The portions of the cases diagnosed as having cerebral hemorrhage among vascular disease patients were alike in both districts. The average age of attack, however, was more advanced in Okinawa. Further, the rate of cerebral thrombosis in Okinawa was remarkably greater of 4.51% than in Kumamoto of 2.73%. 4) Also the morbidity of myocardial infarction in Okinawa was greater (2.25%) compared with that in Kumamoto (0.49%). But the difference was not observed as for the occurrence of angina pectoris-angina of effort and intermediate types. 5) The portion of diabetics to outpatients was equivalent between the two districts. In the case of Okinawa, a majority of patients (56%) were possessed of high cholesterol compared with 20% of Kumamoto, most of them being obese. This tendency was prominent in the younger groups or males. 6) With regards the diabetic complication with other diseases, the rate of albuminuria was rather greater in Okinawa; hypertension, abnormal findings in the ECG, or retinopathy in Kumamoto.
A study was made concerning the fatty acid composition of the sera of arteriosclerotic patients. The serum lipids were fractionated by silicic acid chromatography into neutral-and phospholipid fractions, and the fatty acid composition of each fraction examined by gas chromatography. It was found that palmitic, palmitoleic, and octadecenoic acids were increased, while arachidonic and linoleic acids were decreased, in both neutral-and phospholipid fractions. The above octadecenoic acid was proved to be a mixture of oleic and cis-vaccenic acids, and it was found that cis-vaccenic acid contents of neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions in normal subjects were 14.7±2.8% and 30.3±5.8% respectively, while they were 13.7±2.5% and 30.4±5.4% respectively in patients with arteriosclerosis, namely, no significant difference was observed in the serum cis-vaccenic acid content between normal subjects and patients with arteriosclerosis.