According to the vital statistics from 1970 to 1979 published from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the death rate was highest at the age of 55-59 years for gastric cancer, 75-79 years for gastric ulcer and 35-39 years for duodenal ulcer in a total of 6, 982, 264 deaths. According to the Annual of the Pathological Autopsy Cases from 1970 to 1979 published from the Japanese Pathological Society, the death rate was highest at the age of 70-74 years for gastric cancer, 65-69 years for gastric ulcer and 25-29 years for duodenal ulcer in a total of 257, 868 autopsy cases. We have carried out gastric mass survery from 1960 in Miyagi prefecture. In 1961, 1966, 1971, 1976 and 1981 a total of 407, 695 persons were examined, and the incidence of gastric cancer was highest at the age of 70 years, that of gastric ulcer at 65-69 years and that of duodenal ulcer at 29 years or less. Namely, these results indicate that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer are typical senile diseases. One of the most important functions for the maintenance of human life is intestinal absorption, and gastric and pancreatic juice secretory functions participate in it. We performed gastric juice analysis by endoscopic examination in 245 persons with probably normal gastric mucosa and noted that all of gastric juice secretion, maximum acid concentration and maximum pepsic concentration showed a tendency toward depression at the age of 70 years or more. Then pancreatic juice secretory function was determined in 507 persons without pancreatic disease. As a result, secretion of pancreatic juice, bicarbonate or amylase was not depressed due to old age. In fat absorption test which was carried out in healthy persons, depressed absorption due to old age was not noted when daily fat intake was 30g or less. When it amounted to 35-40g, however, absorption of fat showed a tendency toward depression at the age of 70 years or more. Accordingly, disturbed intestinal absorption due to old age does not occur in healthy elderly persons so long as they take appropriate amounts of food. Recently the average life of Japanese has increased and is now longest in the world. A survey of literature shows that the life of Japanese was also long in the past. According to “Gishiwajinden” written by Jinju (233-277), a chronicler in ancient China, the life of Japanese was as long as 100 years in the third century. It was also recorded that Japanese life span was 100 years in “Yojokun” (1713) written by Ekiken Kaibara (1630-1714) and “Chomei Yojokun” (1716) written by Gyuzan Kazuki (1656-1740) in the Edo period. Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland (1762-1836), a doctor in Germany, advanced a theory that the natural life span is 200 years in his writing. It corresponds to 120 years in the present Japanese. Further, since it has been calculated that 190 years are required for all of 14 billion cerebral cells to die, about 120 years of age when more than half such cells are alive can be regarded as the natural life span. We must study further, aiming at the natural life span of 120 years in the future.
1. According to the microspectrophotmetric procedure changes by age of acid mucopolysaccharide and glycoprotein in media of thoratic aortae were studied in a quantitative comparison using -Wistar Kyoto Rats (WKY) and- Stroke-Prone spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP), -rats in total. 2. In WKY rats, acid mucopolysaccharide arrived at the maximal dose in the days of 300s and reduced gradually, while glycoprotein arrived at the maximal dose in the days of 100s and then indicated gradual by age. 3. In SHRSP rats, acid mucopolysaccharide far exceeded that of WKY rats in amount within 100 days, and rapidly reduced by the days of 200s. On the other hand glycoprotein showed a different characteristic from that it exceed a little that of WKY rats in amount by the days off 100s, but after that rapidly increased toward the days of 300s and maintained such high value even after the days of 400s. 4. Four constituents in arterial connective tissue completely destructd in SHRSP rats acompanied with abnormal hypertension. As a result lowered arterial functions abnormal vasometabolism were suggested sufficiently.
1) On a total 147 cases i.e. 45 of WKY and 99 of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP), histological considerations and subsequent comparative quantitative studies by microspectrophotometry were made of the amount of the thoratic aortic smooth muscle cell and the progress with age of its nucleic DNA synthesizing power. 2) From after birth to 300-day-level, WKY smooth muscle cell increases with arterial growth from 29.9 to 53.8% E and then from 400-daylevel decrease gradually to 48.4%E. 3) SHRSP smooth muscle rapidly increase from 35.0%E at less thatn 100 days after birth to 74.3%E on 200-day-level and further increase (77.8%E) on 400-dat-level and then decrease gradually. 4) WKY nucleic DAN increase from 96.5AU at less than 100 days after birth to 167.9AU on 200-day-level and then decrease. 5) SHRSP nucleic DNA increase (261.7AU) already at less than 100 days after birth, increase gradually up to 300-day-level (178.7AU) and then decrease. 6) SHRSP smooth muscle cell is abnormal in kinetics and nucleic synthesizing power with WKY, which together with dysmetabolism of elastin, collagen, acid mucopolysaccahride and reported already, results obviously from the pathology of hypertension.
A cytomorphometrical study was made on the hepatocyte of 9 centenarians (3 males, 6 females; 100-112 years old) with no significant alterations in the liver and the results were compared with those obtained from 34 non-centenarians (17 cases each for both sexes; 16-92 years old). Both nuclear and cellular areas of the hepatocyte were measured on histological sections by the cytophotometrical method using a QTM-900 (Metal Res., England). The results were as follows: 1) All cytophotometrical parameters estimated, which include the nuclear and cellular size and their mean values, were greater than those of non-centenarian groups. 2) The nucleo-cellular ratio differed insignificantly from those of non-centenarian groups. 3) An incidence of binucleate cells was greater than those of non-centenarian groups and its increase was proportionate with grades of polyploidization observed in mononuclear hepatocytes of the same individual. 4) The greatest ploidy class detected was 16C in mononuclear cells and (8C+8C) in binucleate cells. All these data show that size alterations of the hepatocyte of centenarians follow an increasing pattern in proportion to aging observed in non-centenarian groups. Thus the centenarian could be a group locating on an extending position next to the nonagenarian. The results obtained by present cytomorphometrical analysis do not favor a hypothesis that the centenarian is a select population in terms of longevity.