Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
Print ISSN : 0300-9173
Volume 37 , Issue 12
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Akira Ueki
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 939-948
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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  • Kouichi Nobutomo
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 949-953
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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  • Takashi Inuzuka
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 954-957
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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  • Hiroshi Mikami
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 958-960
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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  • Yoshio Namba, Takahiko Umahara
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 961
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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  • Takashi Sakurai, Bo Yang, Toshihiro Takata, Koichi Yokono
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 962-965
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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    In Alzheimer's disease, brain glucose metabolic ratio decreases, whereas the brain lactate metabolic ratio increases. To investigate possible synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease, we examined the effects of exogenous glucose deprivation and replacement of glucose with lactate on the synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and the morphological integrity of hippocampal neurons. Synaptic activity was estimated by the amplitude of the population spike (PS) recorded in the granular cell layer in the hippocampal slices from guinea pig and rat. Exogenous glucose deprivation caused the immediate depression of PS. Replacement of glucose with lactate induced transient decrease of PS, followed by spontaneous recovery of synaptic transmission. Neural activity recovered from transient glucose deprivation became resistant to the replacement of glucose with exogenous lactate. Glucose-supported synaptic transmission exhibited approximately 140% enhancement of PS (LTP). However, lactate-supported synaptic activity yielded approximately 110% potentiation of PS. Effects of exogenous glucose and lactate on the cell viability were examined by the propidum iodide uptake and LDH release in the organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Hippocampal slice cultures incubated in medium containing 10mM lactate suppressed the cell death during 48h observation as well as those in the 10-30mM glucose containing medium. These results indicate that lactate can sustain the neural transmission and support the morphological integrity of hippocampal neurons, but failed to induce LTP, which could at least in part, cause the memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease.
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  • Hiroyuki Umegaki
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 966-969
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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    Several lines of evidence suggest that the cholinergic system in the hippocampus plays a pivotal roll in regulating the peripheral metabolism of glucose and catecholamines. The injection of cholinergic stimulators including neostigmine, the acetylcholine esterase inhibitor, into the third ventricle or the hippocampus induces the elevation of glucose or catecholamines in plasma in rats. Under stress conditions, release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus increases, which coincides with the elevation of plasma glucose and catecholamines. Age-related reduction in responsivity of the cholinergic system in the hippocampus has been well-documented. The intrahippocampal neostigmine injection induces significantly attenuated responses in plasma glucose and catecholamines in rats, which finding suggested that changes in cholinergic system activity in the hippocampus could result in alteration of the peripheral metabolism of glucose and catecholamines. In Alzheimer's disease, the most common type of dementia, degeneration of the hippocampal cholinergic system is one of the most robust pathological features. Measurement of plasma catecholamines during a fasting state in groups of Alzheimer's disease subjects, vascular dementia subjects, and non-demented control subjects showed significantly lower plasma epinephrine levels in the Alzheimer's disease subjects.
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  • Mieko Otsuka
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 970-973
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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    To determine dietary factors involved in the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we analyzed food consumption and intake of nutrients using Self-administered Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) developed for Japanese. Sixty four AD patients and 80 age-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. AD was diagnosed according to the criteria of DSM-IV.
    Dietary behaviors of AD patients was markedly deviated from those of age-matched healthy elderly. AD patients disliked fish and green-yellow vegetables and took more meats than controls. Energy-adjusted analysis of nutrients revealed that AD patients took less vitamin C and carotene. Most conspicuously, AD patients took significantly smaller amount of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) reflecting low consumption of fish, and their n-6/n-3 ratio was significantly increased. These habits started from 3 months to 44 years before the onset of dementia, suggesting these dietary abnormalities are not merely the consequence of dementia. Rather, it implies that AD might be a life style-related disease such as coronary heart disease, western style diet-associated cancer and hyperallergy.
    To see if cognitive function was improved by correcting the n-6/n-3 ratio, we prescribed eicossapentaenoic acid (EPA), one type of n-3 PUFA, for AD patients. Cognitive function was evaluated using MMSE. Administration of EPA (900mg/day) improved MMSE significantly with maximal effects at 3 months and the effects lasted 6 months. However, the score of MMSE decreased after 6 months.
    The present study showed that nutritional intervention is useful for the prevention of AD, and also for the therapy of dementia, though it has some limitation.
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  • Nobuyuki Okamura, Mitsutoshi Shinkawa, Hiroyuki Arai, Toshifumi Matsui ...
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 974-978
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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    To examine the difference in functional brain imaging between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal aging, we measured rCBF on functional brain imaging using 123I-IMP single photon emission computed tomography (IMP-SPECT) in 19 MCI patients who progressed to develop AD on follow-up and 23 probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as well as 15 age-matched normal subjects. Baseline MMSE score was 25.3 (SD 1.2) in the MCI group and 17.5 (SD 3.3) in the AD group. The regions of interest (ROI) in the posterior cingulate gyrus, frontal, temporal and parietal cortices were drawn on the image of IMP-SPECT with reference to an individual MRI image. The rCBF ratio was calculated using ROI value in the cerebellum as a reference. Voxel-based analysis was also preformed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The rCBF ratio in the posterior cingulate gyrus was significantly reduced in the MCI group (mean 0.956, SD 0.080) and the AD group (mean 0.833, SD 0.118) compared to that in the normal group (mean 1.083, SD 0.084). In the frontal, temporal and parietal cortices, the rCBF ratio was significantly reduced only in the AD group compared to the normal group. At a fixed specificity of 80%, the diagnostic sensitivity in the discrimination between MCI patients and normal subjects was 80.5% when using rCBF ratio in posterior cingulate gyrus. In the SPM analysis, significant reduction of the rCBF in MCI group was observed only in the posterior cingulate gyrus, compared with normal subject group. Our results suggest that MCI patients presenting with a posterior cingulate hypoperfusion are at higher risk for transition from MCI to clinically recognizable AD.
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  • Toru Osakabe, Nagisa Okada, Hiroshi Wachi, Akira Sato, Shigeru Sasaki, ...
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 979-983
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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    To examine quantitative changes of elastin, fibrillin and collagen in abdominal aortic aneurysms, including ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAA), inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) were measured. Items measured included the desmosine content of the aorta (desmosine 1) or of the elastin fraction (desmosine 2), fibrillin content in the aorta, hydroxyproline in the aorta, collagen percent and elastin percent, and were compared with control samples from the nonaneurysmal aortic segments.
    The elastin contents (desmosine 2) in RAAA, IAAA and AAA were significantly lower than those of controls. The content of the desmosine 2 from IAAA and AAA did not show a negative association with Ca. The fibrillin contents of the aorta from RAAA, IAAA and AAA were significantly higher than those of controls. The collagen content in the RAAA aorta was significantly higher than that of controls.
    There was a correlation of the ratio of fibrillin to elastin components (fibrillin/desmosine 1 or fibrillin/desmosine 2 or fibrillin/elastin %) and the ratio of collagen to elastin components (collagen/desmosine 1 or collagen/desmosine 2 or collagen/elastin %).
    These results indicated that increasing fibrillin and collagen might be a complementary result of decreasing elastin cross-links in the aorta. This phenomenon was markedly in RAAA.
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  • Hiroshi Fujimaki, Yutaka Kasuya, Shiro Koga, Tokuji Hirashima, Shino K ...
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 984-989
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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    The aim of the present study is to clarify the factors causing prolongation of the length of hospital stay in elderly patients beginning hemodialysis.
    Patients aged over 60 years who had newly started hemodialysis (98 cases) were studied. These were 59 men and 39 women. The age was 73±7 years (mean±standard deviation). In each patient, the cause of renal failure (non-diabetes/diabetes), body mass index, comorbid conditions (cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, etc.), ambulation, cognitive function, urgency of the initiation of dialysis, occurrence of access failure, marital status, younger cohabitants, and the length of stay after initiation of dialysis were surveyed.
    The median and the mean of the length of stay were 37 and 49 days. Because of this disparity, a normal distribution of the length of stay could not be obtained. However, the distribution was transformed to close to normal by logarithmic conversion of the number of days. We used the log-converted value as the length of stay for statistical analyses.
    We investigated the influence of the differences of each factor on the length of stay. The subjects were divided into two groups for each factor. The mean and standard deviation of the length of stay was calculated respectively. Comparisons were carried out by unpaired t-test. Multiple regression analysis was also performed using background factors as explanatory variables, and the length of stay as a dependent variable. The factors presented by the nominal scale were converted to dummy variables.
    Eight variables in the unpaired t-test and seven variables in multiple regression analysis were statistically significant. All but one variable were common to both analyses. The gender was statistically significant only in the unpaired t-test. It could be explained by close correlation of gender with marital status. Access failure and urgent initiation of dialysis were dominant factors for the prolongation of the length of stay. Ischemic heart disease, diabetes, inability to walk, impaired cognitive function, and absence of a partner also prolonged the length of stay.
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  • Motoko Tanaka, Masahide Kawamura, Masato Tani
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 990-994
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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    ‹PURPOSE›
    Owing to a recent increase in incidence of colonic adenoma and adenocarcinoma, colonoscopic treatments for elderly subjects are performed more frequently. We analyzed differences in complications between elderly and young subjects. ‹OBJECT AND PROCEDURE›
    Subjects that had been treated with colonoscopy at Keio Cancer Center, were divided into two groups; one group (436) consisting of subjects below the age of 65, the other (176) consisting of subjects 65 and over. We analyzed differences in symptoms, complications and pathological findings.
    ‹RESULT›
    •No significant statistical differences were found in the occurrence of adenoma and adenocarcinoma between the young and the elderly group.
    •Complications: Pain occurred in 9.4% of the young group and 10.2% of the elderly group., showing no significant difference between the two groups. Bleeding occurred in 0.7% of the young group and 3.8% of the elderly group and ulcerative scars were found in two of the latter.
    ‹CONCLUSION›
    In the elderly the regenerative capacity of damaged blood vessels and tissues is greatly reduced, therefore bleeding and ulceration occurred more frequently. It was thus concluded that it is very important for elderly group to rest after endoscopical mucosal resection, polypectomy and biopsy in order to minimize the risk of bleeding in the digestive tract.
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  • Susumu Kakinuma, Hiroshi Nogaki, Mitsunori Morimatsu
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 995-998
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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    Medical complications seen in admitted patients in a one-year period in a rehabilitation hospital were evaluated, and patients with neurological diseases were subdivided with age in order to determine trends of complications which occurred in the aged patients. Ninty-five of 117 patients (81.2%) suffered from complications, the most common were respiratory diseases, genitourinary diseases and psychoneurological diseases and events. Infectious diseases were very common throughout all ages. Significantly more cases and occasions of complications occurred in the aged patients (ages 65 or more, n=59) than in the younger patients (aged under 65, n=58), which suggests that complications tended to recur in the same patient in the aged group. Genitourinary diseases, especially urinary tract infection, was far more common in the aged group, predominating in women. Recurrences of stroke or poststroke epilepsy were more frequently seen in patients aged under 65. Traumas and fractures related to falls occurred more commonly in the aged group. Elderly patients were more susceptible to complications not directly related to the illness for which they were admitted. Complications occur quite commonly in aged patients admitted to our rehabilitation hospital, and careful attention should be paid to conditions unrelated to the illness causing admission, such as infectious diseases, especially for aged patients.
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  • Kimito Kondo, Kotaro Miyashita, Jun Ogata, Chikao Yutani, Takemori Yam ...
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 999-1003
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 76-year-old man with parkinsonism and dementia was reported. He developed resting tremor at age 69 followed by hypokinesia, rigidity and small step gait. L-dopa ameliorated his symptoms with no hallucinations for the initial 5 years. His mental level did not decrease during that period. He was admitted to our hospital because of dehydration and fever at age 74. Subsequently, his cognitive function deteriorated, with visual hallucination. Serial brain CT studies displayed a progressive cerebral cortical atrophy without focal lesions. He died of respiratory distress syndrome and disseminated coagulopathy resulting from pneumonia, dehydration and syndrome malin. Postmortem examination revealed a marked bilateral loss of melanin-containing neurons with Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus. Lewy bodies were also in the basal nucleus of Meynert, with moderate neuronal cell loss. The distribution of Lewy bodies was widespread in the cerebral cortical areas, corresponding to the neocortical subtype according to the consensus guideline for the pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies. According to the criteria of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease, the age-related plaque score in the present case suggested Alzheimer's disease, although cortical neurofibrillary changes corresponded to stage II by the criteria of Braak and Braak.
    These pathological findings established the diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies from the quantitative and distributional viewpoints. Based on recent neuropathological evidence, a spectral theory, which presents idiopathic Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease as the two extremes of a spectrum of neurodegeneration, has been proposed. Dementia with Lewy bodies is located in the middle of this spectrum. Pathological evaluation based on quantitative consensus guidelines is important to establish the diagnosis in patients with parkinsonism and dementia, since neuropathological changes of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies are often observed in a mixed manner in these patients.
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  • Hiroyuki Tanaka, Junzo Nagashima, Sachihiko Nobuoka, Toru Awaya, Yasun ...
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 1004-1008
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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    We report a 70-year-old women with Eisenmenger's syndrome. Eisenmenger's syndrome with ventricular septal defect was diagnosed at another hospital when she was 32 years old. Then, she was referred to our hospital at age 60 old and she now is according to the out patient in over clinic. She have mild cardiac function. NYHA classification, was II-M. polycythemia cell blood count 535×104 and 17.2g/dl in hemoglobin. Echocardiography sugested serious Eisenmenger's syndrome. The left ventricle was compressed, the blood pressure of the right ventricle exceeded 105mmHg, and the onset of the right to left shunt flow was thought to be 250msec bored on the electrocardiogram Q wave. The reason why the progression of complicated obstructive pulmonary artery disease was slow may have been become of the mildness of her polycythemia, and this is presumed to be the reason for her long survival to age 70.
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  • K. Shigenobu, M. Ikeda, N. Maki, H. Tanabe, C. Matsuura
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 1009-1011
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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  • K. Kin, T. Iwamoto, T. Oyama, M. Ami, S. Sugiyama, M. Takasaki
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 1012-1013
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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  • Yoku Nakagawa, Koichi Shido, Yoshimori Minemawari, Masayuki Kawabata, ...
    2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 1014-1021
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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    Diagnoses recorded in the chapter E of Minimum Data Set (MDS) were analyzed in patients requiring care admitted in a geriatric hospital in Sapporo, Japan. They were classified as: A-diseases causing care-requiring conditions, B-their symptoms, and C-coexisting diseases requiring no care. Orthopedic diseases were not analyzed because they were not adequately recorded in MDS system.
    Class A diagnoses varied, but only five diagnoses were responsible for 3% or more of the total patients who required care. They were 1) Alzheimer's disease (AD), 2) Parkinson's disease, 3) dementia other than AD without neurological symptoms, 4) dementia other than AD with sequelae of stroke, and 5) sequelae of stroke without dementia. These diagnoses pooled represented over 90% of all patients.
    “Diagnoses and symptoms” in MDS were useful to 1) describe medical problems briefly in a predetermined format, 2) evaluate urgent or unstable conditions separately from stable diagnoses and symptoms, and 3) use common information by various professions, but have difficulties because 1) preselected diagnoses were few and unsuited to practices in Japan, 2) it is impossible to record a previous disease in the past that initiated the process leading to the present disabilities, and 3) it is also impossible to record the seventies of the diseases and symptoms.
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  • 2000 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 1022-1029
    Published: December 25, 2000
    Released: November 24, 2009
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