In 1992, the Chemical Software Society of Japan (CSSJ) was organized in Japan, and a lot of chemistry CAI software were collected and distributed free to its members. In the world, there are several CAI developer groups, such as Project SERAPHIM. Numerous CAI software were provided by the Project and were distributed to the CSSJ members on request. In 2002, the Society of Computer Chemistry, Japan (SCCJ) was established, expansively inheriting CSSJ. In the age of the Internet, CAI was renamed as e-learning, which became popular in schools. The media have changed from floppy diskettes into mobile phones. Most chemistry teachers are able to teach students with several e-learning methods. Development of e-learning resources in chemistry will be more and more important in chemical education in the future.
Students who are strong in logical-mathematical intelligence have a natural advantage in learning and understanding chemistry, which is full of abstractions that are remote from the material world. Simulations provide more-inclusive learning activities for students who are weak in logical-mathematical intelligence. A second advantage of using simulations is that they are not limited by (for example) the quantised energies, integral masses and discrete expectation values of real atoms and molecules. Numerical experiments can be used to investigate the effect of continuously varying atomic mass, bond distance or any other property, from one value to another. Finally, students are more familiar with spreadsheets than more advanced mathematical packages such as MathCAD, MAPLE, Mathematica and other symbolic algebra software. Use of these advanced packages presents additional learning hurdles for students and should be used only for advanced classes. Furthermore, spreadsheets are capable of a level of sophistication that is greater than commonly expected. This can be achieved without the use of MACROs. Examples from the author's teaching are used to discuss the advantages of spreadsheet simulations for learning chemistry.
An educational race is in the works to develop e-learning systems that can be considered ‘stand alone’, ‘off the shelf’, and easy to implement by both educators and students within the chemistry educational environment. Even the best systems available have several drawbacks as they have can be troublesome to utilize, limited in interactivity, and are time consuming, and in a few cases requiring as much time to get to learn how to operate as the educational operations they should be performing. Our team has been working on eradicating such drawbacks, having developed ‘c-Edit’ offering a multi-operational, simplistic input-interface program for educational chemical formula and chemical equation use. The ‘c-Edit’ e-Learning environment has taken the dynamic advantages of Macromedia Flash MX 2004 using action script. This web-based technology design, advances student users to input chemical formula answers (to instructor designed questions) and equations with a minimum of technical fuss. User input is systematically translated into TEX-like data, which is then sent and interpreted to interact with the learning management system or e-learning content provision side. Resulting, is a powerful, versatile student-interface, and as well for the instructor, a dynamic-learning environment, allowing easy in instructor modification to meet class environment needs.
We report here a novel method of visualization to record Born's probability densities in glass blocks by the use of a recently developed three-dimensional laser technique. Conventional visualization methods cannot simultaneously show all the characteristic features of an atomic orbital, whereas a real image in a glass block in the present study allows us to recognize both the shape of the orbital and its wave character, such as the existence of spherical, planar and/or conical nodes, at the same time. One can take this block in one's hands and observe it from an arbitrary direction, to gain clearly the whole image of probability density in it. To show a physical image of the behavior of an electron in an atom is profitable for the understanding of atomic orbitals. This method is the most appropriate to understand images of "the probability density".
Symmetry elements in various hydrogen atomic orbitals are summarized with respect to quantum numbers n, l and m. The results are useful to improve the efficiency of drawing the isosurfaces of these orbitals.