Among the various disorders that manifest with gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence in the elderly population, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is becoming of great importance. The first edition of these guidelines for management of iNPH was published in 2004, and the second edition in 2012, to provide a series of timely, evidence-based recommendations related to iNPH. Since the last edition, clinical awareness of iNPH has risen dramatically, and clinical and basic research efforts on iNPH have increased significantly. This third edition of the guidelines was made to share these ideas with the international community and to promote international research on iNPH. The revision of the guidelines was undertaken by a multidisciplinary expert working group of the Japanese Society of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus in conjunction with the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare research project. This revision proposes a new classification for NPH. The category of iNPH is clearly distinguished from NPH with congenital/developmental and acquired etiologies. Additionally, the essential role of disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid-space hydrocephalus (DESH) in the imaging diagnosis and decision for further management of iNPH is discussed in this edition. We created an algorithm for diagnosis and decision for shunt management. Diagnosis by biomarkers that distinguish prognosis has been also initiated. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of iNPH have entered a new phase. We hope that this third edition of the guidelines will help patients, their families, and healthcare professionals involved in treating iNPH.
Although surgical resection is the most preferred treatment for intracranial meningiomas, a detailed analysis of the surgery-related risks based on large population data has not been conducted to date. In this study, we analyzed the nation-wide brain tumor registry to assess the surgical risk factors for intracranial meningiomas to provide information for an optimal treatment strategy. Data of 4081 meningioma patients who underwent initial resection between 2001 and 2008 were extracted from the Brain Tumor Registry of Japan (BTRJ) database and reviewed for postoperative mortality, aggravation of Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), and complications. The total in-hospital mortality rate was 0.59%. Male sex and tumor size ≥30 mm were independent risk factors for mortality. Among 4081 cases, 4.4% of patients had KPS that were lowered by 20 or more points at the time of discharge after surgery. Age ≥65 years, higher WHO grading, tumor location at the skull base, tumor size ≥30 mm, and non-gross total resections were associated with lowering of KPS scores by 20 or more points. The overall incidence of surgical complications was 19.3%. The rate of occurrence of new postoperative seizure in patients with supratentorial meningioma was 10.9%. All complications except for vascular complications occurred with significantly lower frequencies in asymptomatic patients than in symptomatic patients. Our results provide useful information regarding the surgical risks when surgical intervention is being considered for intracranial meningiomas. Surgery is an important option for asymptomatic meningiomas as the mortality rate and complication rate in the current study were sufficiently low.
There are no scoring methods for optimal treatment of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We developed a scoring model to predict clinical outcomes according to aSAH risk factors using data from the Japan Stroke Data Bank (JSDB). Of 5344 patients initially registered in the JSDB, 3547 met the inclusion criteria. Patients had been diagnosed with aSAH and treated with surgical clipping or endovascular coiling between 1998 and 2013. We performed multivariate logistic regression for poor outcomes at discharge, indicated by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score >2, and in-hospital mortality for both treatment methods. Based on each risk factor, we developed a scoring model assessing its validity using another dataset of our institution. In the surgical clipping group, scoring criteria for aSAH were age >72 years, history of more than once stroke, World Federation of Neurological Societies (WFNS) grades II–V, aneurysmal size >15 mm, and vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) aneurysm location. In the endovascular coiling group, scoring criteria were age >80 years, history of stroke, WFNS grades III–V, computed tomography (CT) Fisher group 4, and aneurysmal location in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA). The rates of poor outcome of mRS score >2 in an isolated dataset using these scoring criteria were significantly correlated with our model’s scores, so this scoring model was validated. This scoring model can help in the more objective treatment selection in patients with aSAH.
Recently neurosurgical operations have been carried out with water irrigation such as endoscopic third ventriculostomy and tumor resections in ventricles. Water irrigation is one of several published methods that promote hemostasis; however, not enough experimental evidence exists on its efficacy. In this study, we investigate whether hydrostatic pressure and persistent irrigation promote hemostasis in neuroendoscopic surgery. We dissected tails of 12–16-week-old C57BL/6 male mice at 5 mm proximal from the tip and checked for bleeding times under dry and wet conditions at pressures of 0 cmH2O, 10 cmH2O, 15 H2O, and 20 cmH2O without persistent irrigation to bleeding point and 10 cmH2O with persistent irrigation. We then examined the dissected edge with hematoxylin–eosin staining and measured the size of vessels. The average bleeding time of each group is as follows: dry: 203.4 sec, wet: 164.4 sec, 5 cmH2O: 138.6 sec, 10 cmH2O: 104.6 sec (P <0.001), 20 cmH2O: 56 sec (P <0.001), and 10 cmH2O with persistent irrigation: 72.8 sec (P <0.01 compared to 10 cmH2O without persistent irrigation). The maximum caliber of mice’s tail artery was 50–60 μm. Hydrostatic pressure and irrigation are important factors contributing to hemostasis.
We compared the rate of selective shunt and pattern of monitoring change between single and dual monitoring in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA). A total of 121 patients underwent 128 consecutive CEA procedures. Excluding five procedures using internal shunts in a premeditated manner, we classified patients according to the monitoring: Group A (n = 72), patients with single somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring; and Group B (n = 51), patients with dual SSEP and motor evoked potential (MEP). Among the 123 CEAs, an internal shunt was inserted in 12 procedures (9.8%) due to significant changes in monitoring (Group A 5.6%, Group B 15.7%, p = 0.07). The rate of shunt use was significantly higher in patients with the absence of contralateral proximal anterior cerebral artery (A1) on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) than in patients with other types of MRA (p <0.001). Significant monitor changes were seen in 16 (12.5%) in both groups. In four of nine patients in Group B, SSEP and MEP changes were synchronized, and in the remaining five patients, a time lag was evident between SSEP and MEP changes. In conclusion, the rate of internal shunt use tended to be more frequent in patients with dual monitoring than in patients with single SSEP monitoring, but the difference was not significant. Contralateral A1 absence may predict the need for a shunt and care should be taken to monitor changes throughout the entire CEA procedure. Use of dual monitoring can capture ischemic changes due to the complementary relationship, and may reduce the rate of false-negative monitor changes during CEA.
Gliomas are sometimes difficult to differentiate from strokes and are often misdiagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); thus, the terms “stroke mimics” and “stroke chameleons” have been introduced. In this study, we analyzed stroke mimics and stroke chameleons in glioma and discussed the diagnostic perplexity.
We retrospectively reviewed cases that were removed from lesions that were considered to be brain tumors. This study enrolled 214 patients who underwent tumor resection for suspected glioma. Clinical characteristics and radiological findings of the patients were compared between the masquerade findings group, which was further divided into two groups: the stroke chameleons and stroke mimics according to their final diagnosis, and the intelligible findings group.
Stroke chameleons and stroke mimics were significantly higher in age and smaller in lesion size than the intelligible findings group. In the multivariate analysis, the predictive factor of the masquerade finding group was higher age and smaller size. Stroke mimics group has a tendency to be higher rate of hyperintensity lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) compared with stroke chameleons group. The average period from initial diagnosis to pathological diagnosis was 13.50 days in the stroke chameleons and 61.50 days in the stroke mimics, which proved significantly different.
Proper diagnosis of glioma and stroke affects a patient’s prognosis, and should be diagnosed as soon as possible. However, stroke mimics and stroke chameleons caused by glioma can occur. Thus, the diagnosis of a stroke should take into consideration the possibility of a glioma in real clinical situations.
Transforaminal full-endoscopic spine (TF-FES) surgery is minimally invasive and can be performed under local anesthesia. Thus, it is expected that the patient can return to work (RTW) quickly. However, information in the literature regarding this is sparse. The purpose of this study is to review the timing of RTW after TF-FES surgery. This study involved 50 patients (14 women, 36 men; mean age 44.5 years, age range: 20–65 years) who underwent TF-FES surgery between January 2016 and April 2018. All the patients were active workers. Occupations varied widely (e.g., physician, nurse, helper, clerk, construction worker, chef, and schoolteacher). There were no surgery-related complications. Median time to RTW was 21 days. More than half of the patients could RTW within 21 days. In all, 12 cases (24%) could have RTW within 7 days. Occupations of 12 patients who achieved RTW within 7 days included physician, company owner, and restaurant owner, with 11 in the Light work, 1 was in the Medium work, and none in the Heavy work. All 12 had a quick RTW because their work was Light and they could not take prolonged sick leave. Prompt RTW is possible with TF-FES surgery. The biggest merit of TF-FES surgery is minimal invasiveness to the muscles of the back. Also, it can be performed under local anesthesia. Our findings reveal quicker RTW after surgery, depending on occupational type.
To evaluate the effects on cognitive function of deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients treated surgically for unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). The subjects were 106 patients in whom a Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised (WAIS-R) examination was performed 1 week before and 1 month after clipping surgery for asymptomatic UIAs. DWMH severity was evaluated on preoperative MR images by Fazekas scale, as follows: none (absence), mild (punctate foci), moderate (beginning confluence of foci), or severe (large confluent areas). A decrease of 7 or more points in intelligence quotient (IQ) postoperatively was considered deterioration. Fazekas score was none in 41 (none group), mild in 42 (mild group), moderate in 21, and severe in 2 patients (moderate/severe group). Patient characteristics, surgical factors, IQ change, and abnormal findings on postoperative MRI were compared among the groups. Although there was no statistically significant deterioration in IQ postoperatively in any group, the percentage of deteriorated patients was significantly higher in the moderate/severe group (34.8%) than in the other groups (4.9% in the none group, 7.1% in the mild group; p <0.01, p <0.05, respectively). Brain injury was observed more frequently on postoperative MR images in the moderate/severe group (17.4%) compared with the none group (2.4%; p = 0.052). The presence of moderate/severe DWMHs was an independent prognostic factor for postoperative cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, the presence of moderate/severe DWMHs was a prognostic factor for postoperative cognitive dysfunction after surgery for UIAs.