This paper researches the accentuation of Kochi City dialect and 4 dialects near to Izuta shrine, Kochi prefecture, presenting new evidence for the reconstructed forms suggested by Uwano (2006), including the form of type 7b of 3 mora nouns. The accentuation of the 4 dialects is similar to the Churin Tokyo Shiki (CTS for short) and generally shows the oldest states of CTS while their characteristic type-mergers of nouns reveal that they are not CTS. The differences probably derive from the difference of phonetic strength of the mora-internal fall of word-final accent kernels.
The Kamifukami dialect spoken in Yatsushiro, Kumamoto, has a two-pattern accent system. Among the two-pattern accent systems in Kyushu, bunsetsu obligatorily serves as an accentual unit and, except in a few cases, the “expansion of an accentual unit,” where a single accent pattern spans over two or more bunsetsu, has not been observed. However, this study reveals that the Kamifukami dialect exhibits the expansion of an accentual unit in a wider range of environments than other dialects. It also confirms that a two-pattern system in this dialect is typologically unusual because bunsetsu does not necessarily function as an accentual unit.
The study of the interaction between music and language is a small but rather active branch of musicology and linguistics. The two disciplines seldom meet. In this study we add a linguistic approach to our ethnomusicological knowledge. The cultural setting under study is Kammu, an Austroasiatic language spoken mainly in Laos. Kammu is a tone language where each syllable has a tone, either High or Low. The overarching melodic template is separated from tones to detect if or how lexical tones interact with melody. We study three genres, all performed by the same singer. The degree of preservation of lexical tones is genre dependent. Three main types of genres are found, tone-centered with melodic template built solely on lexical tones, melody- and tone-centered, and melody-centered in which lexical tones adapt to melody.
Depression refers to the involuntary lowering of pitch in vocal utterances, and is an important constraint on singing in the Nguni languages of southeast Africa. This study considers how speech tone and intonation shape pitch patterning and melody in Zulu speech and song. Using phonetic description and analysis in Praat, the study shows how depressor consonants—which consist of voiced stops, fricatives, and clicks—have a tone-lowering effect on vowels, and condition glides. Other factors depressing melodies are falling tone, downdrift intonation and final cadence. The analysis is based on two traditional songs recorded in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
This paper discusses differences between the vowel inventory of spoken Benhti Kenaga’ (Lower Tanana Athabascan, TAA, Minto dialect) and the inventory found in vocables in Minto songs. Phonetic, musical, and ethnographic factors are considered. While no one of these approaches appears to provide a full explanation for the difference, the combined factors all create a tendency toward a vocable inventory with more peripheral vowels than the spoken vowel inventory. High front vowels are associated with higher melodic points and non-high back vowels with lower points in melody.