This study evaluated the characteristics of inmates who assault in penal institutions. Three categories were formulated for 867 male inmates as follows: those who had assaulted staff, had assaulted inmates, and had not assaulted anyone. Logistic regression analysis was performed based on the results of one-way ANOVA and independence test. AUC based on the results of logistic regression analysis of assault against staff with “type of crime,” “a history (or the lack thereof) of disciplinary offenses,” and “the presence or absence of mental disorder(s)” as independent variables was .84. Risk factors for assault against staff were committed felonies, past assault of staff, and mental disorder(s). AUC based on the results of logistic regression analysis on assault against inmates with “age,” “number of sentences,” “length of sentences,” and “a history (or the lack thereof) of disciplinary offenses” as independent variables was .76. Risk factors for assault against inmates were younger, frequent imprisonment, longer sentences, and past assault of staff and inmates. In conclusion, risk management focusing on different risk factors and interventions such as emotional control, learning problem-solving skill other than violence, and psychiatric treatment are important in preventing assault against staff and inmates.
This study identified factors that increased or inhibited juvenile training schools inmates’ help-seeking intentions. A total of 318 inmates of juvenile reformatories answered a questionnaire that measured attachment, social support, subjective needs, the anticipated benefits of help, and intentions to seek help from family members, friends, juvenile training instructors and volunteer probation officers. The results of structural equation modeling revealed that anticipated benefits were the strongest predictors of help-seeking intentions and partially mediated the influence of attachment and social support on help-seeking intentions. Moreover, while attachment anxiety and subjective needs were positively related to help-seeking intentions, attachment avoidance was negatively related to help-seeking intentions. Finally, the importance of seeking help from professional helpers was discussed.
The developmental features of the psychologists in the correctional field have not been empirically examined by the previous studies. The present research studied the developmental process of the psychologists working for the juvenile classification homes in Japan. Analyzing the qualitative data collected from the twenty one psychologists, the result showed that, in the developmental process of the psychologists in the correctional field, the personal factors contributing to the developmental process of the psychologists such as the motivation, responsibility, or complaints interacted with the external factors surrounding them such as the work experience and the relationship with the supervisors, supervisees or family members. In addition, the developmental features discussed in this study were as follows; ①They ponder their meaning of exist or the role in the society as the psychologists in the correctional field. ②Their development is achieved by experiencing the various areas of the correctional works.
It has been suggested that coordination training and cognitive training is contribute to improvement of physical and cognitive function in children with developmental issues, and there is growing interest in these training in the juvenile correctional field. In this study, we experimentally examined the effectiveness of these training in physical and cognitive functions from neuroscience perspective. Although participants were students in a juvenile training school, it was difficult to control the group and treatment environment due to the proper operation of the juvenile training school. Because of differences in the proportion of correctional education course and categorical methods between subjects (n＝7) who were determined to need training and non-subjects (n＝7) who were not determined to need training, one-group pretest-posttest design was used for each of the subjects and non-subjects. The subjects were conducted about 15 times, and the subjects and non- subjects took part in pre- and post-testing. The subjects demonstrated significant changes in visual motor-based physical functions and perceptual organization-based cognitive functions. Because we were forced to use a research design with low internal validity in this study, the causal relationship between these training and the subject’ test results remain unclear. Follow-up studies with a refined research design are desirable.
Time perspective (TP) is a vital psychological component that has been observed to be related to numerous human behaviors as well as psychological elements. Using the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), a person’s TP profiles in the past, present, and future can be identified simultaneously. This study examined the association between presence in profiles based on the ZTPI and delinquency. A total of 102 male university students participated in the study. Cluster analysis identified four TP profiles. Among these, the profile characterized by high scores on PN, PH, and PF and low scores on PP and F was found to be positively related to delinquency, while the balanced profile and the profile characterized by low scores on PN, PP, PH, and PF seemed to have a relatively inhibitory effect on delinquency. This result indicates that a balanced TP is not the only temporal profile that can inhibit delinquency. Therefore, further discussions on the balanced TP profile and other profiles are necessary.