Extra-weak chemiluminescence was detected in the organ homogenate and blood of tocopherol-deficient rats by use of a newly devised single photon counting apparatus. The spectrum distribution showed that the chemiluminescence had emission peaks at wavelengths between 500 and 650nm corresponding to the simultaneous transition of singlet molecular oxygen (1O2), 2[1Δg]→2[3∑g-]. This chemiluminescence was quenched by the presence of free radical scavengers, butyl hydroxytoluene and d-α-tocopherol. It was stimulated by D2O and 1O2-emission enhancer, 1, 4-diazabicyclo [2, 2, 2] octane. The chemiluminescent intensities in tissues of rats fed a tocopherol-free diet for seven months were higher than those of rats fed a normal diet which contained 15 mg of tocopherol per 100g of diet. The considerable increase of light emission was observed especially in liver, kidney, heart, lung and brain homogenates. The intensity of tocopherol-deficient liver chemiluminescence corresponded to 22×103 photons per sec⋅cm2. The results indicated that the chemiluminescence was directly related to the generation of 1O2 involving free radical reactions in the tocopherol-deficient rat tissues.
Plasma lipid peroxide levels of 419 inhabitants of Nauru, where a high prevalence of obesity is occurring, were measured. The plasma lipid peroxide level was 4.03±1.94 nmol/ml in subjects 20-24 years and rose to a peak of 5.78±3.21 in subjects 35-44 years'. The values obtained with Nauruans are significantly higher than those of healthy Japanese people and the peak found in the former was shifted to a younger age than in the Japanese.
The time course of change in plasma calcium levels and renal metabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] was investigated in chicks maintained on a vitamin D-deficient diet for 4 weeks. Plasma calcium concentrations dropped sharply between the 7th and 14th day of the feeding period. Renal 25(OH)D3-1 α-hydroxylase activity was reciprocally enhanced concurrently with the decrease in plasma calcium levels. The elevated activity of 1 α-hydroxylase had declined significantly by the 21st and 28th days in spite of the more severe hypocalcemia. When graded amounts of vitamin D3 were administered to the chicks maintained on this diet for 14 or 28 days, there were considerable differences in the change of plasma calcium levels and 25(OH)D3 metabolism induced by vitamin D3 administration between the 14-day and 28-day birds. The minimal dose levels of vitaminD3 to completely suppress renal 1 α-hydroxylase activity were 25μg in the 14-day, and 2.5mg in the 28-day birds. These differences were not observed between the 14-day and 28-day birds when l xhydroxyvitamin D3 [lα(OH)D3] was administered. Renal adenylate cyclase activity induced by parathyroid hormone (PTH) was much lower in the 28-day chicks than that in 1-day-old and the 14-day birds. These results are explained by the hypersecretion of PTH and the subsequent refractoriness of the target organs in severe vitamin D deficiency. Plasma calcium levels per se did not appear to be a major factor in the regulation of 25(OH)D3 metabolism.
The regulation of vitamin B12 and bacteriochlorophyll formation was studied in a facultative methylotroph, Pro taminobacter ruber, classified as a non-photosynthetic bacterium. Vitamin B12 was formed at an almost constant level under various cultivation conditions, while bacteriochlorophyll synthesis was drastically influenced by the growth conditions. Addition of B12 and hemin to the medium and the change of culture conditions from light to darkness in the early growth phases stimulated the pigment synthesis, but no pigment was formed under the continuous illumination and the addition of chloramphenicol inhibited the pigment formation. δ-ALA synthase and δ-ALA dehydratase activities were demonstrated in P. ruber. δ-ALA synthase formation was induced when cultures were transferred from light to dark conditions, which promoted the bacteriochlorophyll formation. Bacteriochlorophyllprotein complex had an absorption maximum at 870nm and a very small peak at 800 nm.
Changes in serum free amino acids as a response to ketogenic provocative test were studied in children with a history of ketosis but without hypoglycemia. 1. Of the 17 children who underwent the provocative test, only three showed clinical manifestations. They were among five children who responded to the test and developed hypoglycemia. 2. Hypoglycemic and non-hypoglycemic children differed greatly in the decrement of serum total gluconeogenic amino acids after completion of the test due to the relatively lower levels before provocation in the hypoglycemic group and the inversely higher levels in the nonhypoglycemic group. 3. Gluconeogenic amino acids that decreased sharply after the test were glycine, alanine, glutamine and glutamate.
An appropriate procedure for analysis of cystine in the hair has been established, and this procedure was applied to the hair of Japanese women. The recovery of authentic cystine added to a hair sample was 85-90% in 6 N HCl hydrolysis, and 96% in acid hydrolysis after performic acid oxidation. The 18-hr acid hydrolysis, but not 4-hr one, was sufficient to digest the hair. In colorimetry by using phosphotungstate, Brown's reagent gave a stable color development. The cystine content by amino acid autoanalysis was significantly correlated with that by the phosphotungstate colorimetry by the modified method of Kassel et al. or of Shinohara. The cystine content in women's hair, which was collected from specimens of different individuals cut during the period from 1910s to 1980, indicated a wide variation ranging from 0.654 to 1.607 mmol half-cystine per g of hair after washing with 0.5% sodium laurylsulfate.
Okinawan sugar cane rind was fed to Wistar strain rats to examine its effects on the serum and liver cholesterol (Chol) and triglyceride (TG). At the same time, the effects of sugar cane rind on the fecal excretion of neutral sterols of the rats were examined. There were no significant differences found in the food intakes and the liver weight between the rats fed with sugar cane rind and other groups. The addition of 1% Chol to the diet caused a significant increase in body weight gain but the supplementation of sugar cane rind (2%) showed an effect on weight control of rats. The serum Chol and TG levels of the rats given sugar cane rind were lowered significantly. However, the lipid levels in the liver were almost the same when compared with the control groups. The amount of feces excreted by the rats fed with sugar cane rind was about 37% more than that of the control group, and the fecal excretion of neutral sterols was significantly higher.
Starch granules were prepared from seeds of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., A. caudatus L., proso millet, Japanese barnyard millet and foxtail millet. Amylose contents and the distribution of α-l, 4 linked chain of amylopectin were determined by gel filtration of isoamylasedebranched starches. Some physical and chemical properties of the starches were also examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, photopastegraphy, and differential scanning calorimetry, together with starch-granule susceptibility to amylases. The existence of both normal and waxy types in the same species of a grain amaranth, A. hypochondriacus L., was confirmed. A. caudatus starches were identified to consist of mainly typical amylopectin and 5-7% amylose. The starches have some unique properties, namely, high starch-granule susceptibility values to amylases as well as those of A. hypochondriacus and unique pasting properties.