Red blood cells (RBC) of alpha-tocopherol sufficiency and deficiency were produced in kids fed on purified diets to investigate the relationship between RBC alpha-tocopherol levels and hemolysis induced by Tween 20. RBC alpha-tocopherol contents of vitamin E-deficient kids were non-detectable from 4 weeks, and percentages of hemolysis increased to over 70%. A highly significant decrease in hemolysis was noted when vitamin E was added to the diet. Tween 20 hemolysis values were negatively correlated with RBC tocopherol levels in kids. The concentration of RBC alpha-tocopherol required to prevent the hemolysis was found to be 0.6 μg/ml packed cells.
The present study was designed to determine the effect of purified viscous polysaccharides on pancreatic exocrine secretion and biliary output. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 5 weeks were fed either on the control diet which contained no fiber or on the experimental diets that contained 5 % indigestible polysaccharides (agar, ic-carrageenan, Naalginate and konjac mannan). After pretreatment with each diet for 2 weeks, the diet was discontinued overnight, and the animals were then allowed to eat 4 g of the test diet in 1 h. Immediately after this, a polyethylene tube was placed in the common bile duct, under anesthesia. Combined, free drained pancreatic-bile juice was collected for the following l h. Long-term (2 weeks) administration of Na-alginate and konjac mannan gave rise to increases in the volume of secreted juice and in the output of total bile acids, amylase and protease, whereas that of agar and K-carrageenan had no affect. Since a single dose of Na-alginate and konjac mannan was ineffective as regards pancreatic-bile secretion, the elevated secretion observed over prolonged periods may result from processes of adaptation against highly viscous polysaccharides.
The effect of nicotinic acid on synthesis of cerebroside was studied during brain development. Nicotinic acid concentration in the whole brain and liver of rats fed on nicotinic acid-deficient diet for 10 days after weaning was lower than that of animals fed on nicotinic acidsupplemented diet. The cerebroside concentration was markedly lower and the total lipid concentration was slightly lower in the brain of nicotinic acid-deficient animals than in those receiving nicotinic acid-supplemented diet. Therefore, the ratio of cerebrosides to total lipids of nicotinic aciddeficient rats was significantly lower than that of nicotinic acidsupplemented rats. In nicotinic acid-deficient rats, the ratio of long-chain to short-chain fatty acid (C20-24/C14 -18) was decreased in the nonhydroxy fatty acid fraction. Moreover, the ratio of synthesis of cerebrosides with hydroxy fatty acid to nonhydroxy fatty acid of nicotinic acid-deficient rats was higher than that of rats fed on nicotinic acid-supplemented diet. These observations suggest that nicotinic acid affects the synthesis of cerebrosides with nonhydroxy fatty acid.
The experiment was conducted to study the relationships among glucose, insulin, potassium, magnesium and calcium concen-trations in the blood plasma following intravenous glucose or epinephrine injection. Plasma concentrations of potassium and magnesium were lowered after the respective injection of glucose and epinephrine. When compared to epinephrine injection, an injection of glucose solution decreased potassium and magnesium concentrations in plasma more rapidly. Moreover, the recovery of the concentration levels of these minerals was faster when the animals were injected with glucose rather than epinephrine. These changes were inversely related to those of plasma insulin concentrations. The results may indicate that increased insulin secretion caused by glucose or epinephrine injection results in decreases of the plasma magnesium as well as potassium concentration in sheep.
Carnosine can support the growth of rats fed on a histidinefree diet. Rats fed on the histidine-free diet lost weight rapidly for a few days, then remained at a relatively constant weight for 2 weeks at least. However, rats fed on a 0.90% carnosine diet, which contains histidine equimolar to that in a 20% casein diet, increased their weight at the same rate as rats fed on a 20% amino acid diet simulated with casein. On the other hand, the growth of rats fed on a 5% carnosine diet was about 70 compared with that of control rats fed on the 20% amino acid diet for a 2week experimental period. Carnosinase activity was not significantly affected in the kidney of rats fed on the histidine-free or the 5% carnosine diet. On the other hand, carnosinase activity in the small intestine of rats fed on the histidine-free diet was significantly increased. Histidine content of serum of rats fed on the histidine-free diet decreased to 1/3 of that of control rats, while that of rats fed on the 5 % carnosine diet increased to about 14 times. Carnosine content of rat gastrocnemius muscle increased with carnosine content of diets, followed by an increase of histidine in the muscle. However, carnosinase activity of gastrocnemius muscle was not affected by carnosine in diets.
Partially purified Okinawan sugar cane wax and fatty alcohol were fed to Wistar strain rats to examine the effects on serum and liver cholesterol (Chol), triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid (PL). The fecal excretion of neutral sterols in the rats was also determined. There were no significant differences found in the body weight gain, food intake and liver weight among the animals of experimental diet groups. An addition of 0.5% sugar cane wax to the diet significantly lowered the concentrations of serum and liver Chol in the rats. There were no significant differences observed in PL and TG levels either in serum or liver among the experimental groups. These results indicate that cane wax, one of the elements contained in sugar cane rind as well as in black sugar, may have a cholesterol-lowering effect on the serum and liver of the rats. The amount of feces excreted by the three experimental diet groups of rats were exactly the same and also no significant differences were found in the excretion of Chol. Key Words sugar cane wax, cholesterol, lowering effect
Urinary energy/nitorogen ratios were determined in 179 female and 14 male subjects given protein from various sources and at various intake levels. The ratio decreased with increaseing protein intake from zero to 1 g/kg/day but was constant when protein intake was between 1 to 1.8 g/kg/day. The ratio was not affected by the variety of protein source. There was no difference between the data for semisynthetic diet and conventional diet. Mean values and standard deviations of the ratio in men and women given the diet containing 1.0 to 1.8 g protein/kg/day were 9.06±0.56 (n=14) and 8.19±0.81 (n=37) kcal/kg N, respectivery. The difference between two figures in men and women was significant (p<0.05). The mean values of urinary E/N ratio actually measured did not approach those of urea (5.34 kcal/g N), the principal nitrogenous compound in urine, the proportion of which increased at higher protein intake level. Characteristically high ratios were obtained in the ma-konbu (Laminaria japonica) and enokitake (Flammulina velutipes) diet groups. The results suggest that urinary energy originates not only from nitrogen-containing compounds but also from other organic compounds containing no nitrogen. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the urinary E/N ratio applicable to the urinary loss of incompletely oxidized nitrogenous compounds.
Intragastric administration of casein, oleic acid, or polyvinylpyrrolidone resulted in a marked increase in the pancreatic secretion of enzymes, and the administration of 0.03% sodium saccharin, at the concentration permitted in soft drinks, inhibited this increase with these substances. The stimulation of secretion of pancreatic juice-bile mixture by these substances was also inhibited by administration of sodium saccharin. Intravenous injection of CCK-PZ (cholecystokinin-pancreozymin) during inhibition by sodium saccharin, caused a rapid increase in amylase output, suggesting that sodium saccharin acts on the site(s) of CCK-PZ release to prevent its secretion even in the presence of a stimulant, but does not reduce the sensitivity of the pancreas to CCK-PZ. Sodium saccharin seemed to have an effect on secretin release similar to that on CCK-PZ release, judging from the results for the volume of juicebile mixture.