The effect of dietary intake of marine oils (CLO and SBO) on the lipids, a-tocopherol and TBARS in serum and liver was investigated in rats. In the dietary fats (8% in diet), the proportion of marine oils and corn oil was changed at five steps from 100:0 to 0:100. In the groups fed more than 50% CLO, serum cholesterol levels decreased while liver cholesterol increased as compared with the rats fed less than 50% CLO. On the other hand, SBO intake lowered serum cholesterol, TGs and PLs in the group on more than 25% of total fats, while it also induced an elevation of liver cholesterol and total lipids, in slightly higher degree as compared with the case for CLO intake. TBARS levels increased in liver with increasing intake of both marine oils, whereas a-tocopherol levels contrarily decreased in serum and liver. Only 0.6 and 0.3% of ω-3 type unsaturated fatty acids (EPA and DHA) were involved in the experimental diets of 50% and 25% marine oil groups respectively, since both marine oils contained about 15% of ω-3 type polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our results show that such a low content of ω-3 type fatty acids affects body lipid metabolism with respect to change in cholesterol, TGs, PLs, α-tocopherol and lipid Peroxidation.
To clarify the mechanism of thiamin degradation by catechol derivatives, thiamin and its analogues were incubated with caffeic acid or catechol in 1/15 M phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 48°C or 50°C. Using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, several unknown intermediates of the reaction product, which may have both pyrimidine and catechol moieties, were detected.
Equimolecular amounts of thiamin and catechol incubated under suitable conditions produced an unknown reaction product isolated as a light yellow powder from the reaction mixture by reverse-phase ODS column chromatography. Elemental analysis of the purified powder showed the molecular formula to be C18H22N4O4S-HCl-H2O in agreement with a molecular ion peak found at m/e 390 in the mass spectrum. These results together with the data of IR and NMR spectrometry possibly show that this material consists of an isomeric mixture of S-3, 4 and S-2, 3-dihydroxyphenylthiamin (I and II) which probably arise as a result of oxidative addition of the thiol group of thiamin to catechol.
The state of thyroid function and the effect of triiodothyronine (T3) administration on aspartate aminotransferase isozymes in the livers of rats fed on a diet with or without pyridoxine were examined. Decreased thyroid function in pyridoxine-deficient rats was demonstrated using malic enzyme as a marker of thyroid function in the liver. Administration of T3 increased cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase in the liver of pyridoxine-deficient rats, but not of control rats.
The physiological and nutritional status of adult Tongans in rural (Uiha, 50 males and 58 females) and urbanized (Kolofo-ou, 77 males and 71 females) areas were surveyed in 1977 and 1979, respectively. Adult Tongans of both sexes in the two districts had considerably large physiques. Being different from the obesity found in peoples of industrialized countries, the obese state of adult Tongans was associated with large muscularity, low incidence of glucosuria, ECG abnormalities and hypertension, and normal plasma cholesterol levels. However; modernization has started to have an influence upon the health of adult Tongans; relatively high levels in parameters relating to obesity as well as higher incidence of hypertension were observed in adult Tongans in Kolofo-ou as compared to adult Uiha islanders.
This investigation was attempted in order to further clarify the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on lipid metabolism in rats. Ninety-three percent ethyleicosapentaenoate (EPAconc) and 91% ethyl-docosahexaenoate (DHAconc) were used and supplied at the 3% level to a hypercholesterolemic basal diet which contained 5% lard. Four experimental diets were prepared from (1) 5% olive oil, (2) 2% olive oil + 3% ethyl-linoleate, (3) 2% olive oil +3% EPAconc, and (4) 2% olive oil +3% DHAconc plus hypercholesterolemic basal diet. Young male rats were fed on these diets for respective periods of 10 and 20 days. Concentrations of serum lipids in rats fed on the diets (2), (3) and (4) were compared to those of the control group (diet (1)). Serum total cholesterol level was significantly lower only in the animals fed on DHAconc, whereas serum triglyceride concentration was significantly lower only in the animals fed on EPAconc. Serum phospholipid level was significantly lowered both in the animals fed on either EPAconc or DHAconc. Serum lipid peroxide concentration was elevated in these two groups of animals, while serum alpha-tocopherol concentration was lower in both groups of animals fed on EPAconc and DHAconc, respectively, although these findings were less marked in the rats on the EPAconc diet. From these findings, it is postulated that EPA and DHA have different effects on lipid metabolism in rats with hypercholesterolemia experimentaly induced.
The effects of unavailable carbohydrate on the cecum and colon were investigated in rats raised on diets containing 20% of glucomannan or cellulose for 8 weeks. Glucomannan ingestion caused the increase of cecum and colon weights, and the effect was greater in the cecum than in the colon. However, on ingestion of cellulose, a remarkable increase in tissue weight was observed in the colon rather than in the cecum. Measurement of DNA, RNA and protein in cecal and colonic mucosa demonstrated that the cecal enlargement caused by glucomannan was dependent on the increases in both number and size of mucosal cells, and that the cecal and colonic enlargements caused by cellulose and the colonic enlargement caused by glucomannan resulted from an increase in the number of mucosal cells; i.e., hyperplasia. (Na+K)ATPase activity of the cecal and colonic mucosa in the cellulose and glucomannan groups was significantly higher than that in the control group. Thus, (Na + K)ATPase activity was increased proportionally to the intensity of the process of tissue enlargement.
The enzymatic digestion of a Kintoki bean lectin in vitro resulted in neither the extensive hydrolysis nor complete inactivation of the lectin. The majority of [3H]lectin administered to mice by stomach intubation was found in the digestive tract at levels of 88.7%, 99.4%, 99.5% and 78.6%, after 0.5, 2, 5 and 24 h of intubation, respectively. Twenty to forty percent of the administered radioactivity was found combined with the mucosa of the small intestine. After 24 h of intubation, part of the radioactivity was found in the feces. The recovery test of hemagglutinating activity and the molecular weight determination of the lectin administered to and recovered from mice revealed that more than 70% of the radioactivity detected in the digestive tract represented intact lectin. Therefore, it was concluded that most of the Kintoki bean lectin survived its passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The lectin-binding sites in the intestinal mucosa were traced with fluorescence microscopy using the lectin conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate. The fluorescent sites were found located at the top and upper sites of the villi, but not at the crypt.
The nutritional efficiency of selenium (Se) contained in two kinds of processed fish meat was appraised. Rats were fed on a 20% casein diet deficient in Se (0.046μg/g diet) for 2 weeks, and were then fed on the basal diet supplemented with 0.08 μg/g of Se as sodium selenite, boiled meat of skipjack or dried strip of skipjack for an additional 8 days. The Sesupplementation caused a significant increase of the Se concentration and the glutathione peroxidase activity in the rat liver. Although significant differences in hepatic Se levels were not observed among the rats fed on the Se-supplemented diets, the elevation of the hepatic enzyme activities of the rats fed on the skipjack-supplemented diets was only 45 to 53% that of the rats fed on the selenite-supplemented diet. Amounts of excretion of both fecal and urinary Se of the rats fed on the diets supplemented with the skipjacks were higher than those of the selenite-administered rats. These results indicate that the nutritional efficiency of the Se in the skipjack meat is about 50% that of selenite and that unknown factor(s) other than luminal absorption contribute to the low availability of the Se in the skipjack meat.