Brewer's yeast cell wall (BYC) is a valuable foodstuff that prevents constipation in rats. In this study, the effects of yogurt supplemented with brewer's yeast cell wall (BYC-Y) on constipated male Sprague-Dawley rats induced by loperamide (2 mg/kg body weight) were investigated. The preventive effect of BYC-Y on experimentally constipated rats was examined and compared with that of nonfiber diet (Control) and standard yogurt (Yogurt) as the control diets. The number of feces and fecal dry weight were greater in rats fed with BYC-Y than in those fed with Control or Yogurt. Moreover, the effect of BYC on the improvement of cecal microflora in constipated experimental model rats was evaluated. The number of Lactobacillus, Eubacterium, and total anaerobes per unit cecal contents increased (p<0.03) as a result of BYC ingestion. These findings indicate that BYC-Y or BYC is effective for the alleviation of constipation and bowel environment.
The effects of Chlorella regularis powder (CP) and Chlorella regularis indigestible fraction (CIF) on serum and liver lipid concentrations and on fecal steroid excretion were es-timated in rats fed diets containing 5 g/kg cholesterol and 2.5 g/kg sodium cholate. The in-gestion of 12.7% CP or 5.3% CIF did not influence food intake or growth. CP and CIF de-creased the levels of serum cholesterol, but had no effect on the levels of serum triacylglyc-erol and phospholipid. Liver cholesterol contents were lower in the CP and CIF groups than in the control group, but CP and CIF did not affect liver triacylglycerol content. CP and CIF increased the total amount of fecal neutral steroids excreted, but did not modify the total bile acid excretion. However, the soluble bile acid concentrations of reconstituted fecal water in the rats fed CP and CIF diets were lower than the control value. Moreover, CP and CIF had a high bile acid binding capacity in vitro. These results indicated that CIF had a hypocholes-terolemic effect and enhanced fecal neutral steroid excretion while decreasing the soluble fecal bile acid concentration.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether caffeine (CAF), carnitine (CAR), or CAP +CAR mixture administration affects exercise endurance time via carnitine metabolism. Water (CON), CAF, CAR, or CAF+CAR mixture was administered to five male rugby athletes participating in this study by a randomized double-blind fashion who were made to ride a cycle ergometer for exercise. The CAF effect on exercise endurance time was small, but the CAR trial significantly increased the exercise endurance time compared with CON trial; a further CAP+CAR mixture trial had greater effects on the exercise endurance time than those of a CON, CAF, or CAR trial. A CAR or CAF+CAR mixed trial increased uri-nary nonesterified carnitine (NEC) and total carnitine (TCAR), but no changes were ob-served in acid-soluble acylcarnitine (ASAC) and acid-insoluble acylcarnitine (AIAC) excre-tion. A CAR or CAF+CAR mixed trial resulted in higher levels of plasma NEC, ASAC, and TCAR fractions than the CON and CAF trials did on exhaustion time. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid in blood were significantly increased at exhaustion time, but they were not affected in the CAF or the CAR trial. These results suggest that carnitine in-gestion could promote fat oxidation, resulting in higher endurance performance in athletes, and especially these ergogenic effects of carnitine coingested with caffeine may be greater than those of carnitine alone.
The role of Mg2+, Cat +, and Mn2+ in regulation of purified pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) containing endogenous thiamin diphosphate (TDP) was studied. It was found that the effects of the cations depended on the presence of exogenous TDP. In the absence of added TDP, the divalent cations led to a shortening of a lag phase of the PDC reaction and a strong reduction of the Km value for pyruvate. The relative effi-ciency of the three types of ions are presented as follows: Mn2+>Ca2+>Mg2t The other sources claim that in the presence of exogenous TDP, which alone strongly increased the affinity of PDC for pyruvate, any significant additional effects of the cations were not ob-served. However, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ decreased the Km value for CoA in both cases, the absence and presence of exogenous TDP, in approximately a similar extent (about twofold), The affinity of PDC for NAD+ seems to be not sensitive to the presence of the divalent cations. The data obtained suggest that Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ can cooperate with TDP as positive regulatory effectors of pig heart PDC on the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase and lipoamide acetyltransferase components of the complex.
This study has the purpose of investigating the influence of different high-fat experimental diets on myocardial structure in rats. Twenty-seven male rats were fed from 21 d old (postnatal age) until 18 mo old with one of the following supplemented diets: soy-bean oil (S) (n=6), canola oil (CA) (n=8), or lard and egg yolk (LE) (n=6) or canola oil+lard and egg yolk (CA+LE) (n=7). The blood pressure (BP) was measured, and after the sacrifice the cardiac biometry and the myocardial stereology were determined: cross-sectional area of cardiomyocyte (A), volume density (Vv), surface density (Sv), and length density (Lv) in relation to the cardiomyocytes (cm), connective tissue (ct), and blood vessels (v). The CA group rats had lower BP, A[cm], and Vv[ct]; they had'greater Vv[cm], Sv[cm], Vv[v], Lv[v], and Sv[v] than the other groups. The S rats had intermediary values for the myocardium and blood vessel parameters between the CA and LE group rats. These results support the notion that the long-term use of canola oil in the diet is better to preserve the myocardium structure, including microvascularization, than soybean oil or lard and egg yolk.
We investigated the antifatigue effect of royal jelly (RJ), which had been stored at -20°C from immediately after collection, in male Std ddY mice. The mice were accus-tomed to swimming in an adjustable-current swimming pool, then subjected to forced swimming five times during 2 wk, and the total swimming period until exhaustion was measured. They were separated into three groups with equal swimming capacity, which were administered RJ, RJ stored at 40°C for 7 d (40-7d RJ), or the control solution including casein, cornstarch, and soybean oil before swimming. All mice were forced to swim for 15 min once; then the maximum swimming time to fatigue was measured after a rest pe-riod. The swimming endurance of the RJ group significantly increased compared with those of the other groups. The mice in the RJ group showed significantly decreased accumulation of serum lactate and serum ammonia and decreased depletion of muscle glycogen after swimming compared with the other groups, whereas there was no significant difference be-tween the 40-7d RJ group and the control group in these parameters after swimming. A quantitative analysis of constituents in RJ showed that 5 7-kDa protein, which we previously identified as a possible freshness marker of RJ, was specifically degraded in RJ stored at 40°C for 7 d, whereas the contents of various vitamins, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, and other fatty acids in RJ were unchanged. These findings suggest that RJ can ameliorate the physical fatigue after exercise, and this antifatigue effect of RJ in mice seems to be associated with the freshness of RJ, possibly with the content of 5 7-kDa protein.
We developed an analytical method for measuring tea catechins in plasma by solid-phase extraction (SPE), followed by HPLC with a coulometric electrochemical detector. The plasma was mixed with an equal volume of acetonitrile to precipitate protein, and cate-chins in the resulting supernatant were extracted by SPE, using a C18 cartridge. To correct the extraction efficiency, ethyl gallate was simultaneously added with acetonitrile as an in-ternal standard. Plasma samples were treated in microtubes, and evaporation and SPE were performed by the use of a vacuum centrifuge and vacuum manifold for SPE. The use of these instruments allowed the handling of a large number of samples simultaneously. In this method, (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECg), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCg), and ethyl gallate could be detected as a sin-gle peak with high sensitivity. For an analysis of the conjugated form of catechins, plasma samples were treated with glucuronidase and sulfatase. Type H-2 β-glucuronidase effec-tively digested the conjugated forms, and the enzyme also converted EGCg and ECg to their nongallated form. When the concentrations of catechins in plasma were analyzed in sub-jects who took a single dose of catechin liquid, the concentration of free EGCg in plasma reached a maximum of 300 nM at 1 h after intake; those of the other free form of catechins increased only slightly after the intake. The concentration of total catechins (free+conju-gated forms) in plasma increased up to 2 h after the intake.