Candida albicans translocation was determined in rats receiving a normal or vitamin E-supplemented and deficient diet submitted to mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion (MIR). The antioxidant effect of vitamin E on lipid peroxidation was also assessed. The animals were divided into six groups submitted to different diets for 30 d. Groups N, NI, NC and NIC were submitted to a normal diet and used as controls, and groups VITE and DEFE received a vitamin E-supplemented and vitamin E-deficient diet, respectively. Groups NIC, VITE and DEFE were submitted to MIR, inoculated with Candida albicans and sacrificed 24 h after the surgical procedure. The antioxidant effect of vitamin E was determined in the liver and gut mucosa using the TBARS method. Candida albicans translocation was assessed in lymph node, liver and kidney specimens. The results showed that lipid peroxidation was lower (p<0.05) in the vitamin E-supplemented group. However, vitamin E supplementa-tion did not protect the rats against Candida albicans translocation (the translocation in the Group VITE was 100% for lymph nodes).
Ascorbate is a cofactor of two-enzyme hydroxylation in the pathway of carnitine biosynthesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of ascorbate to endogenous carnitine in guinea pigs fed high-fat diets. The contents of carnitine in plasma, urine and tissues of guinea pigs supplemented with L-ascorbic acid were determined and compared with those supplemented with carnitine. Albino-Hartley guinea pigs were fed vitamin C-deficient diets containing lard throughout the experiment. They were administered orally with 5mg L-ascorbic acid/d/animal for 14 d, and then divided into three groups and administered orally with the following supplements (/d/animal) for 14 d; L (5mg L-ascorbic acid), LASA (100mg L-ascorbic acid), and LCAR (10mg carnitine plus 5mg L-ascorbic acid). As a control, a normal group was fed vitamin C-deficient diets and administered orally with 5mg L-ascorbic acid/d/animal for 28 d. The animals fed high-fat diets (L group) had higher free-carnitine contents in the muscle and urine than the normal group. The groups of LCAR and LASA had significantly higher contents of acid-soluble carnitine (p<0.05) in plasma than the L group. Urinary excretion of carnitine in the LASA group was decreased to the same level as that in the normal group, although no significant difference between the groups of L and LCAR was observed. Moreover, the supplement of ascorbic acid, but not of carnitine, induced a significantly lower content of triacylglycerol in the plasma of the LASA group as compared to the L group (p<0.05). These data suggest that high doses of ascorbic acid in guinea pigs fed high-fat diets contribute to the enhancement of carnitine synthesis and improvement of the triacylglycerol content in the plasma.
The study was conducted to elucidate the effects of orally administered indigestible saccharides (IDS) on immunoresponses of the intestinal tracts, especially secretion and excretion of immunoglobulin A (IgA). Male 4-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing several kinds of IDS (cellulose, corn husk, glucomannan, curdlan and lactulose) at 5% for three weeks. The results indicated that the proportion of IgA-presenting lymphocytes in the cecal mucosa of the tested IDS groups increased significantly or tended to increase compared with that of the cellulose group. No significant differences among the experimental groups were observed in the CD4+- and CD8+ -presenting lymphocytes and the CD4+/CD8+ ratios in the small intestine, cecum and mesenteric lymph nodes. IgA amounts in the cecal contents increased significantly in the glucomannan and curdlan groups as compared with that in the cellulose group. The inconsistent results were observed in the cecal IgA amounts of the lactulose group. Although IgA excretion into feces increased periodically in the cellulose, hardly any changes were observed in the glucomannan and curdlan groups. These results revealed that IgA secretion from cecal mucosa to contents was promoted, and its excretion to feces was decreased by the oral administration of highly fermentable IDS, respectively, while non- or low-fermentable IDS functioned adversely to IgA responses in the intestinal tract. It is suggested that the response of IgA in the intestinal immune system differs with the type of IDS ingested.
A high-molecular-weight fraction after removal of water-soluble peptides from proteinase-treated soybean protein isolate (referred to as HMF) was examined for its effect on preneoplastic lesions in the rat colon. For this purpose, male Fisher-344 rats 7 wk old were divided into 8 groups (n=5), of which 6 groups received 3 injections of azoxymethane (AOM, 15 mg/kg of body weight) for 3 wk once a week, while all were fed HMF or casein diets supplemented with or without deoxycholic acid (DCA) over a period of 4 wk. Two groups of AOM-treated rats were allowed free access to HMF or casein diets without supplemental DCA, respectively, while the others were pair-fed so as to be well matched in their food intake. There were no significant differences in growth parameters among the pair-fed groups. Feeding HMF diets raised fecal lipid and acidic steroid excretions to a greater extent than feeding casein diets, secondary bile acids being conspicuous among acidic steroids in the excreta irrespective of the presence or absence of DCA supplementation. As a result of observation for colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), the intake of HMF proved to reverse the reduction of ACF appearance by DCA. This result implies that secondary bile acids are caught and brought out by HMF, or rather its derivative “resistant protein, ” so as not to keep contact with colonic mucosae.
This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary sodium alginate and fish oil on bodily accumulated trichloroethylene (TCE), which has been widely used as a halogenated solvent and is me-tabolized at a high rate. Each of three groups of rats was fed on either of diets containing cellulose-soybean oil (control), Na-alginate-soybean oil or cellulose-fish oil for 3 wk, and thereafter given a single oral dose of TCE (100mg (0.76mmol)/rat). TCE levels in the blood were moni-tored for 10 h after the administration of TCE. The peak concentrations of TCE in the blood tended to be higher in the alginate and fish oil groups as compared with those in the cellulose-soybean oil group, but not to a significant extent. TCE concentrations in the liver, kidney, brain and the three fat tissues (epididymal, perirenal and subcutaneous) were significantly lower in the alginate and fish oil groups than in the cellu-lose-soybean oil group. Fat tissue weights were also lower in the alginate group and fish oil group. The hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes could not account for the remarkable decreases of residual TCE contents in the alginate and fish oil groups. These findings indicate that the metabolism and excretion of TCE might be accelerated in animals with reduced fat tissue mass.
9, 12-Hexadecadienoic acid (16:2 n-4), present in small amounts in fish oils as a naturally occurring unique fatty acid, was incorporated into the phospholipids in rat liver BRL-3A cells to a similar extent as linoleic acid (18:2 n-6). 11, 14-Octadecadienoic acid (18:2 n-4) and 8, 11, 14-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3 n-4) were detected in the cellular lipids of BRL-3A cells when incubated in a medium supplemented with 16:2 n-4 methyl ester. The cellular levels of these acids increased in parallel with 16:2 n-4 methyl ester added to the medium. These compounds were probably formed through conversion from 16:2 n-4 to 16:3 n-4 by d 6 desaturation, and then 18:3 n-4 was produced by elongation, and part of the surplus 16:2 n-4, not desaturated to 16:3 n-4, elongated to 18:2 n-4. These results suggested that 16:2 n-4 was desaturated by d6 desaturase in vitro. It was also shown that 16:2 n-4 inhibited arachidonic acid synthesis from exogenous linoleic acid in BRL-3A cells as efficiently as a-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3).
Volatile sulfur compounds arising from grated raw or heat-treated garlic in both in-vitro and in-vivo tests were gas-chromato-graphically analyzed. In in-vitro tests, the head-space vapor gas from garlic in a vial was analyzed. It was clarified that allyl mercaptan arising from raw garlic decreased with the passage of time and other volatile low-molecular sulfur compounds (LMSC) did not show remark-able changes. The change of LMSC from heat-treated garlic was also studied. Methyl mercaptan and allyl mercaptan from heat-treated garlic gradually increased to some extent. On the other hand, the quantities of somewhat high-molecular sulfur cmpounds (HMSO) were much less in heat-treated garlic compared to those of raw garlic. These compounds increased till approx. 60 min and then decreased gradually. In in-vivo tests, human expiration after eating garlic was analyzed. Allyl mercaptan, methyl mercaptan and allyl methyl sulfide in LMSC were detected in significant amounts. The quantities of these compounds arising from heat-treated garlic were smaller than those from raw garlic. These compounds had the tendency of decreasing with the passage of time. On the other hand, almost no HMSC was detected in both raw and heat-treated garlic. By sensory testing, raw garlic showed a stronger smell than heat-treated garlic in both in-vitro and in-vivo tests. GC analysis exhibited higher values of volatile sulfur compounds in raw garlic. That is, the higher the volatile sulfur compound level, the stronger the garlic flavor or malodor.
We synthesized a series of stereoisomers of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) by the solid-phase method. These peptides were used to examine their reactivities with enzymes acting on glutathione. The glutathione reductase of yeast acted only on LL-GSSG. Glutathione S-transferase catalyzed the conjugation of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene with LL-GSH and DL-GSH (Km (mM): for LL-GSH, 0.035; and for DL-GSH, 0.62), but the DD- and LD-diastereomers were inert. γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase catalyzed the transfer of γ-glutamyl moiety of LL-GSH and DL-GSH to taurine forming y-glutamyl taurine and cysteinyl taurine (Km (mM): for LL-GSH, 0.336; and for DL-GSH, 0.628), but the other diastereomers were not the substrates. The occurrence of L-cysteinyl residue in the tripeptides is required for the glutathione analogue to be a substrate of the enzymes.
We have previously reported that high-fat diets develop hepatic steatosis and, depending on the fat quality, affect serum lipid levels differently (J Nutr Sci Vitaminol, 1997, 43, 155-160). The aim of this work is to study the influence of high-fat diets (14% sunflower or olive oils) on serum lipids in a model of hepatic acute damage induced by thioacet-amide, and their influence when dexamethasone is administered before thioacetamide injection. Serum lipids and hepatic collagen have been evaluated using biochemical methods, and the steatotic process by histological staining. The results showed that hepatic steatosis and fibrosis are developed either by high-fat diets or thioacetamide injection. Pre-treatment with dexamethasone did not decrease the hepatic collagen content. Thioacetamide injection alone or pretreatment with dexa-methasone produced increases in serum tryglicerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C in both high-fat diet groups, and a HDL-C increase in the olive-oil group, even though the atherogenic indices (HDL/TC and HDL/TG) were different depending on the enriched diet. The administration of high-fat diets to study the influence of the fat quality on health and disease should be interpreted carefully due to the ability of the diets themselves to cause hepatic damage.