Yeast biomass (Saccharomyces sp.) produced in local breweries as a by-product was utilized in this study. Percent proximate composition, amino acid composition, and protein nutritive value were determined for the yeast cell biomass (YC), a sodium perchlorate extracted and isoelectrically precipitated protein concentrate (P-PC), and a sodium trimetaphosphate treated extract followed by isoelectrical precipitation (TMP-PC). Protein concentrates averaged 75% protein as compared to 48.5% in the yeast biomass. Precipitation of the protein in the presence of either sodium perchlorate or sodium trimetaphosphate was reduced to 71% and 51% of the cell RNA content, respectively. Protein nutritive value was 70% of casein when measured by the protein efficiency ratio (PER), and over 90% of casein when net protein utilization (NPUa) was the criteria of evaluation.
Five-week-old male mice, C3H/HeNCrj (C3H/He), were given a 5 % (v/v) ethanol solution, commercial alcoholic beverages (Japanese sake (sake) or red wine) or a Japanese seasoning (mirin [con-taining ethanol and a large amount of glucose]) ad libitum for 45 d, and were then examined for changes in the hepatic enzymes related to eth-anol metabolism 2 h after oral administration of 5 g of ethanol/kg body weight. The specific activity of aniline hydroxylase (ANH) in the hepatic microsome increased significantly in all groups chronically administered ethanol solution, sake, red wine or mirin, and the greatest increase was in the hepatic microsome of mirin-administered mice. The cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2E1 increased in the hepatic microsome of the mice administered ethanol solution, red wine or mirin where accompanied by high ANH activity. The immunoreactive band for CYP 1 A 1 showed high specificity in the microsome of mice given sake, red wine or mirin. It was assumed that CYP 1 A 1 was induced by unknown component(s) other than ethanol in these solutions. In the cytosolic fraction, following the chronic administration of sake and mirin, the total aldehyde dehy-drogenase (AlDH) activity with high-Km decreased significantly. In the mitochondrial fraction, the activity of high-Km AlDH increased sig-nificantly in the mirin-administered mice which drank a large amount of ethanol, whereas that in the red wine-administered group tended to decrease. These results indicate that the enzyme activities related to the oxidation of both ethanol and acetaldehyde in the cytosolic, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions of the liver were affected by either the action of ethanol or its interaction with other constituents of sake, red wine and mirin.
The development of nephrocalcinosis and the time course of changes in kidney function, especially proximal tubular function, were studied in young male rats fed a high-phosphorus diet. The animals were fed a purified diet with a phosphorus content of either 0.5% (normal phosphorus diet) or 1.5% (high-phosphorus diet). In the group fed the high-phosphorus diet, nephrocalcinosis was found in 4 of 42 rats after 1 d of feeding and in all rats of this group at 3 d. The degree of nephrocalcinosis gradually increased with time. Upon histological ob-servation by electron microscopy, vacuoles, lysosomes and swelling of microvilli in the proximal tubules were observed in rats fed the high-phosphorus diet after 1 d of feeding. Giant lysosomes with deposition of calcium and deposition of hydroxyapatite in mitochondria were observed in the proximal tubules of rats fed the high-phosphorus diet at 3 d. Albumin concentration in the urine of these rats was signifi-cantly increased at 3 d. The activity of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase in the urine was also significantly increased after 1 d of feeding the high-phosphorus diet, and then reached a plateau. The β2-microglobulin concentration in the urine of rats fed the high-phosphorus diet was significantly increased at 14 d, and increased more toward 21 d. We concluded that nephrocalcinosis and injury to the proximal tubules are rapidly induced in rats fed a high-phosphorus diet.
In the health management of bone, of most importance is how to spend the period until peak bone mass, that is appropriate self management for bone health. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of physical characteristics and dietary habits on the bone mineral density (BMD) of the second metacarpal bone (∑ GS/D: BMD) by the digital image processing method (DIP) in 197 healthy adolescent girls (Japanese students at a junior high school, aged 12-15 y), an im-portant period of physical and bone growth. Concerning the physical characteristics of the subjects according to age group, body height in each age group was higher than the standard values for Japanese according to age, but body weights in the 14-year-old and 15-year-old groups were significantly lower than the standard values for Japanese. Compared with the standard BMD values for Japanese according to age, BMD in the subjects was high in the 12-year-old, 13-year-old and 14-year-old groups but low in the 15-year-old group (-7.3%). Concerning the nutritional state, energy, calcium (Ca), and iron intakes were insufficient in every age group. BMD relative to the standard BMD value for Japanese (standard value was regarded as 0%) was evaluated according to the ingestion frequency of Ca-rich foods. The relative BMD value (%) increased with the ingestion frequency of Ca-rich foods. These results suggest that maintenance of an appropriate physique and adequate intake of nutrients such as Ca are important for bone growth during adolescence. Active promotion of educational guidance mainly on the effects of diet on bone health in adolescents is necessary.
We investigated the relationship between intravenous energy loading and zinc status in laparotomized rats. One of three test solutions consisting of 3 % amino acid, the same amount of electrolytes (excluding zinc) and different concentrations of glucose were infused through the jugular vein for 5 d. The total energy was 109, 191 and 273 kcal/kg/d, respectively. Significantly positive correlations were observed between infusion energy and rat body weight changes (% of initial value) and between infusion energy and cumulative nitrogen balance. Regarding the zinc status, a negative correlation was found between infusion energy and plasma zinc concentration, and a positive correlation was observed between infusion energy and urinary zinc excretion. There was no significant relationship between infusion energy and hepatic zinc content. These results indicate that the zinc requirement might be increased when infusion energy is elevated and the nutritional status is improved. Zinc supplementation in the post-operative period should be considered in light of not only catabolism but also anabolism. Anabolism may be more important than catabolism in regard to zinc metabolism under relatively mild stress.
We investigated whether dietary wheat bran (Wb) influences the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling index (LI) of the colorectum of rats after the injection of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Male Wistar/ST rats were divided into four groups and given either a fiber-free diet or diets supplemented with Wb at the expense of the whole diet (5, 10 or 20g/100g diet). Then, they were subcutaneously injected with a single dose of DMH (20mg/kg body weight) or the vehicle. At four weeks after the treatment, frozen sections of the colorectum were immunostained with anti-PCNA antibody (19F4). In the fiber-free group, DMH treatment significantly increased the PCNA-LI of the distal colon and rectum. Among the DMH treatment groups, the PCNA-LI of the distal colon in the Wb 5g/100g diet group was significantly lower than that in the fiber-free group. The PCNA-LI of the distal colon tended to increase as the amount of Wb supplemented was increased in the DMH-treated groups except for the fiber-free group. A similar trend was observed for the rectum. In conclusion, the ingestion of Wb diminished the increase in PCNA-LI in rat colorectum induced by DMH injection.
Food antigens transferred into breast milk sometimes cause an allergic reaction in exclusively breast-fed infants. This study will show whether the intake of a whey hydrolysate formula for lactating women (MOM HA) can reduce the appearance of food antigens in breast milk. Lactating women in the MOM group (n=12) consumed MOM HA as a substitute for cow's milk and those in the COW group (n=13) consumed cow's milk for more than 4 months. After the ingestion of 200 mL of MOM HA and cow's milk by the women in the MOM and COW groups, respectively, the first breast milk samples were obtained and β-lactoglobulin was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The number of subjects with detectable f3-lactoglobulin (>0.1 ng/mL) in the MOM group was two (17%), which was significantly less than that in the COW group (11 subjects, 85%, p<0.01). The level of β-lactoglobulin was also lower in the MOM group than the COW group (p<0.01). Subsequently, the women in the MOM group consumed cow's milk and those in the COW group consumed MOM HA for one week; then a second sampling was performed. β-Lactoglobulin was detected in three (25%) and 8 subjects (62%) in the MOM and COW groups, respectively. The level of β-lactoglobulin was still lower in the MOM group (p<0.05). The consumption of whey hydrolysate formula by lactating women over a considerable time reduces the transfer of β-lactoglobulin into their breast milk, and the low level can be maintained even after inadvertent ingestion of cow's milk.
To investigate the absorption and metabolism of an anti-carcinogenic tea catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), in rats, a newly developed chemiluminescence-detection high-performance liq-uid chromatography (CL-HPLC) method was employed and the EGCg concentrations in blood plasma, liver, brain, small intestinal mucosa and colon mucosa were determined before and after EGCg administration. The recovery of EGCg, extracted consecutively with ethyl acetate and methanol, was 86.1 % from plasma and 64.5-74.2% from the tissue samples. The EGCg concentrations of plasma and tissue samples from the control rat (before EGCg administration) were all below the detection limit (<0.002 nmol/mL, 0.002 nmol/g), but 60 min after a single oral administration of EGCg (500mg/kg body weight), the levels increased, reaching 12.3 nmol/mL in plasma, 48.4 nmol/g in liver, 0.5 nmol/g in brain, 565 nmol/g in small intestinal mucosa and 68.6 nmol/g in colon mucosa. The EGCg levels found in the tissues corresponded to 0.0003-0.45% of ingested EGCg. The results indicate that tea catechin, EGCg, is absorbed from the digestive tract, with the intestinal mucosa the most enriched of the organelles. This may explain the potent antioxidant function of EGCg in inhibiting colon mucosal phospholipid hydroperoxidation in the prevention of rat colonic carcinogenesis.