Studies of factors that affect milk vitamin contents are important. We investigated the vitamin contents in rat milk and the effects of dietary vitamin intakes of dams on the vitamin contents in their milk. A low-vitamin diet (0.2%) and a high-vitamin diet (4.0%) based on a diet containing 1% AIN-93-VX (normal diet) was given to female rats from pregnancy to lactation. Regarding the effects of the vitamin intakes, the concentrations of vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and E were decreased with the low-vitamin diet, but were not increased with the high-vitamin diet. The concentrations of niacin, pantothenic acid and biotin were not decreased with the low-vitamin diet, but were increased with the high-vitamin mixture diet. The folate concentration remained constant regardless of the intake of folate. These findings clearly indicate that the levels of certain vitamins in milk are easily affected by the dietary vitamin intakes.
We performed in vitro, animal, and human studies to clarify the effect of mayonnaise on β-carotene intake and its mechanism. In an artificial gastric juice model, we examined the transfer of β-carotene from grated carrot to mayonnaise or vegetable oil. Mayonnaise was more easily dispersed in artificial gastric juice than vegetable oil. The β-carotene concentration was greater in mayonnaise than vegetable oil. In rats, the postprandial serum β-carotene concentration in the mayonnaise group (β-carotene with mayonnaise) was higher than that in the control (β-carotene only) and vegetable oil (β-carotene with vegetable oil) groups. Continuous feeding of dietary β-carotene (14 d), employing mayonnaise or egg yolk, resulted in an increased accumulation of β-carotene in the liver. In a human study, diets were provided in the form of (1) carrot as a control (CON), (2) carrot juice (JU), (3) carrot with oil (OIL) and (4) carrot with mayonnaise (MS). Following collection of fasting blood samples, nine adult males consumed one of the four diets in random order. Fasting and postprandial changes in serum β-carotene were assessed at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 h following ingestion of each diet. The incremental areas under the curves of serum β-carotene concentration were higher following MS than following both CON and JU. In conclusion, we suggest that mayonnaise contributes to raising the serum β-carotene concentration when consumed with carrots rich in β-carotene, and that its mechanism is related to the emulsifying property of the egg yolk contained in mayonnaise.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric inflammation. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent mediator of the inflammatory response by activating and recruiting neutrophils to the site of infection. Oxidant-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB regulates the expression of IL-8 in the immune and inflammatory events. Carotenoids (carotenes and oxygenated carotenoids) show antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Low intake of β-carotene leads to high risk of gastric cancer. Oxygenated carotenoid lutein inhibited NF-κB activation in experimental uveitis. The present study aims to investigate whether β-carotene and lutein inhibit H2O2-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of IL-8 in gastric epithelial AGS cells. The cells were treated with carotenoids 2 h prior to the treatment of H2O2. mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR analyses. IL-8 level in the medium was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NF-κB activation was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. ROS levels of the cells were detected by confocal microscopic analysis for fluorescent dichlorofluorescein. As a result, H2O2 induced the activation of NF-κB and expression of IL-8 in AGS cells time-dependently. β-Carotene and lutein showed inhibitory effects on H2O2-induced increase in intracellular ROS levels, activation of NF-κB, and IL-8 expression in AGS cells. In conclusion, supplementation of carotenoids such as β-carotene and lutein may be beneficial for the treatment of oxidative stress-mediated gastric inflammation.
Many predictive equations for basal metabolic rate (BMR) based on anthropometric measurements, age, and sex have been developed, mainly for healthy Caucasians. However, it has been reported that many of these equations, used widely, overestimate BMR not only for Asians, but also for Caucasians. The present study examined the accuracy of several predictive equations for BMR in Japanese subjects. In 365 healthy Japanese male and female subjects, aged 18 to 79 y, BMR was measured in the post-absorptive state using a mask and Douglas bag. Six predictive equations were examined. Total error was used as an index of the accuracy of each equation's prediction. Predicted BMR values by Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (Japan-DRI), Adjusted Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (Adjusted-DRI), and Ganpule equations were not significantly different from the measured BMR in either sex. On the other hand, Harris-Benedict, Schofield, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization/United Nations University equations were significantly higher than the measured BMR in both sexes. The prediction error by Japan-DRI, Adjusted-DRI, and Harris-Benedict equations was significantly correlated with body weight in both sexes. Total error using the Ganpule equation was low in both males and females (125 and 99 kcal/d, respectively). In addition, total error using the Adjusted-DRI equation was low in females (95 kcal/d). Thus, the Ganpule equation was the most accurate in predicting BMR in our healthy Japanese subjects, because the difference between the predicted and measured BMR was relatively small, and body weight had no effect on the prediction error.
We have previously reported on the possibility that light resistance exercise performed with a high plasma amino acid concentration resulting from the ingestion of a high-protein snack (HPS; 15 g protein, 18 g sugar) 3 h after a basal meal promotes the utilization of amino acids in peripheral tissues such as muscle in both rats and humans. In the present study, we further examined the effectiveness of a daily routine involving ingestion of HPS 3 h after a basal meal and subsequent light resistance exercise (dumbbell exercise) in increasing the mass and strength of human muscle. Ten young adult males were subject to the following 3 conditions for 5 wk each, with sufficient recovery period between each condition: (1) Snack-Exercise (SE), (2) Snack-Sedentary (SS), and (3) No snack-Exercise (NE). The SE group showed a significant increase in lean body mass and total cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right forearm muscles along with a significant decrease in body fat mass. The SS group showed no change in body composition. Furthermore, the SE group showed significant increase in grip strength and isometric knee extensor muscle strength, while the SS group showed no increase in muscle strength. The NE group showed significant increase in grip strength. In conclusion, daily routine ingestion of HPS 3 h after a basal meal and subsequent light resistance exercise is effective in increasing the mass and strength of human muscle.
Some patients with citrin deficiency caused by SLC25A13 gene mutations develop adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) with hepatic encephalopathy. A recent nutritional survey of 18 citrin-deficient subjects (age 1-33 y) confirmed a marked decrease in carbohydrate intake compared to an age-matched general Japanese population. However, a quantitative understanding of food intake in CTLN2 patients remains unclear, although qualitative dietary information has been reported. In order to elucidate the characteristics of daily nutrition of CTLN2 patients, the food intake of 5 male patients (age 39-52 y) was investigated in detail by the Food Frequency Questionnaire. In the present survey, the mean energy ratio of protein : fat : carbohydrate (PFC ratio) of the 5 patients was 19±3% : 44±5% : 37±4%, which was almost identical to previously reported data in younger citrin-deficient subjects (19±2% : 44±5% : 37±7%). Cereal intake was especially low in all CTLN2 patients at 309±33 g/d (56% of control), compared to that in an age-matched general Japanese population (553±197 g/d). Additionally, CTLN2 patients preferred high fat and protein foods. Commonly, fat intake declines with age in the general Japanese population, but this tendency was not observed in the 5 CTLN2 patients. The present results suggest that intakes of low-carbohydrate, high-protein and high-fat food was characteristic the 5 CTLN2 patients surveyed, as has been previously reported in younger citrin-deficient subjects, and that the PFC ratio may not be influenced by age or CTLN2-onset.
During high-intensity exercise, the concentration of ammonia is augmented in skeletal muscle. Ammonia activates phosphofructokinase and prevents oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, thus leading to exhaustion. Citrulline is an amino acid component of the urea cycle in the liver, along with ornithine and arginine. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of citrulline supplementation on fatigue and performance during high-intensity exercise. We constructed a swimming exercise protocol, in which mice were subjected to exhaustive swimming with a load of 5% body weight, and measured the time until exhaustion, the blood levels of lactate and ammonia, and the glycogen content of the gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscles. Citrulline supplementation significantly increased the swimming time until exhaustion. Exercise-induced blood ammonia elevation was repressed by citrulline supplementation, and exercise-induced blood lactate increment in the citrulline-supplemented group was significantly lower than that in the non-supplemented group. Citrulline supplementation may facilitate the detoxification of ammonia via the urea cycle and inhibit additional glycolysis. Our findings suggest that citrulline supplementation may be useful for improving the exercise performance of athletes.
Flavangenol (FG), an extract of French maritime pine bark (Pinus maritime) mainly contains proanthocyanidin in oligomers. It has many physiological effects, including antioxidant and anti-atherosclerosis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of FG on rat collagen-induced arthritis, a model of human rheumatoid arthritis. The rats were fed with the diet of control, 0.3% FG, or 1% FG for 4 wk after the induction of arthritis. The FG diets, compared with the control diet, suppressed the increase in arthritic score and swelling of the paws in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological examination revealed evidence that the 1% FG diet suppressed acute and chronic articular lesions in the rats. In addition, the FG diets (0.3% and 1%) suppressed the production of nitric oxide in the plasma of the rats. These results suggest that dietary FG has beneficial effects on collagen-induced arthritis in rats by inhibiting the acute and chronic inflammatory reactions.
Aim: In this study, we conducted a dietary assessment of the subjects and investigated the relationship of energy, nutrients and food intake to the indices of masticatory ability and masticatory behavior for identifying the differences in their association with dietary patterns. Methods: The subjects were 61 5-y-old children, of whom 45 were included in the final analysis. Occlusal force was measured as an index of masticatory ability. To measure masticatory behavior, the number of chews and time taken for eating the test meal were measured. The subjects' food intake was determined by a food record completed by their guardians. The food intake was evaluated using a newly produced list of 90 foods thought to affect chewing, in addition to which we made two subsets of its food groups containing an abundance of insoluble dietary fiber. Results: Significant positive correlations were found between occlusal force and intake of dietary fibers, vegetables, set A food group, and set B food group (r=0.312-0.354). Significant differences were found in occlusal force by tertile groups for dietary fibers, vegetables, the 90 listed items, set A food group, and set B food group. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between the indices of masticatory behavior (the time-adjusted number of chews and time taken for eating the test meal) and those of dietary intake. Conclusion: Indicators of masticatory ability and masticatory behavior have different implications in their association with dietary patterns in children.