Recently a new assay method that can quantify the singlet oxygen absorption capacity (SOAC) of antioxidants (AOs) and food extracts was proposed. Singlet oxygen (1O2) quenching rates (kQ) and the relative SOAC values were measured for many carotenoids and phenolic AOs in ethanol/chloroform/D2O (50 : 50 : 1, v/v/v) solution at 35ºC using UV-vis spectrophotometry. It has been clarified that the SOAC method is useful to evaluate the 1O2-quenching activity of lipophilic and hydrophilic AOs having 5 orders of magnitude different rate constants (kQ). Measurements of the kQ and SOAC values were also performed for 39 kinds of food extracts. The results indicate that the SOAC method is useful to evaluate the 1O2-quenching activity of food extracts having two orders of magnitude different kQ values. Further, the kQ values for the reaction of 1O2 with 8 carotenoids and 8 vitamin E homologues were measured in an aqueous Triton X-100 (5.0 wt %) micellar solution (pH 7.4). Results obtained demonstrate that the kQ values of AOs in homogeneous and heterogeneous solutions vary notably depending on (i) polarity (dielectric constant (ε)) of the reaction field between AOs and 1O2, (ii) local concentration of AOs, and (iii) mobility of AOs in solution. Measurements of kQ and SOAC values in a micellar solution may be useful for evaluating the 1O2-quenching activity of AOs in biological systems. Furthermore, measurements of the SOAC values were performed for 32 kinds of food extracts using a microplate reader. The SOAC assay method was validated by inter-laboratory validation study due to 14 laboratories.
The relationship between vitamin D levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unestablished. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between vitamin D levels and NAFLD based on population survey data. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Liver steatosis was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between vitamin D status and NAFLD. A total of 9,782 participants were identified in this analysis, with 46.8% male and an average age of 44.41±0.16 y old. Among them, 6,047 (61.8%) cases were without NAFLD, 1,357 (13.9%) had mild NAFLD, 1,594 (16.3%) had moderate and 784 (8.0%) had severe NAFLD. Compared to those with non-NAFLD or mild NAFLD, patients in the moderate to severe NAFLD group had higher vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency rates (12.4% vs 11.5% and 36.8% vs 33.2%, respectively). After adjustment for male gender, older age, race, BMI, history of diabetes and vitamin D intake, vitamin D levels were independently associated with the severity of NAFLD (vitamin D deficiency group OR: 1.314, 95% CI: 1.129 to 1.529, vitamin D insufficiency group OR: 1.203, 95% CI: 1.090 to 1.328). Besides that, cold season was also found to be an independent factor for NAFLD (OR: 0.896, 95% CI: 0.820 to 0.979). Lower vitamin D level is an independent risk factor for NAFLD. Vitamin D levels are inversely associated with the severity of NAFLD. Cold season increases the risk of NAFLD independently.
Vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin are vital for the development of the nervous system, blood formation, and diverse metabolic functions. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the status of vitamin B12, folate and ferritin in the Jordanian population across distinct geographical locations. In this retrospective study, the cohort population included 2,880 Jordanian individuals with an average age of 47 y for males and 34 y for females (January 2014-December 2016). Vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin were measured in the blood samples by immunoassay on an automated instrument. Prevalence of low levels of vitamin B12 among males and females was similar across the four regions (24%). Equivalently high levels of folate were reported in males (24.4%) and females (23.4%). Additionally, 37.4% of males and 20.4% of females showed low levels of ferritin. Pearson’s correlations did not show any association between age, vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin levels in both sexes. Univariate odd ratio (OR) and age-adjusted OR in males showed a significant decrease in low vitamin B12 risk in the region of Tafela when compared to Irbid. In conclusion, our results showed a significant difference in vitamin B12 levels between populations according to their geographical locations. Ferritin levels were low in almost a quarter of the Jordanian population with a high prevalence in males and females in Irbid and Maan, respectively. These differences might be associated with the genetic, dietary and lifestyle situation which requires further studies to elucidate the risk factors for vitamin B12 and ferritin deficiency.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by damaged colonic mucosa and submucosa layers that are caused by excessive inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress. This study aimed to examine the use of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) in mitigating damages caused by UC on the colon epithelium. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC mice were treated with vehicle control, TRF, alpha-tocopherol (αTP) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Observable clinical signs, quality of stool, histopathological scoring, inflammatory and oxidative markers were assessed. Vitamin E levels of colons and plasma were quantified. Oral supplementation of TRF significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced UC by lowering the disease activity index (DAI) and histopathological inflammatory scoring. TRF also attenuated the DSS-induced enlargement of spleen and shortening of the colon. TRF has demonstrated marked anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties indicated by the attenuation of DSS-induced upregulation of inflammation and oxidative stress markers including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and pNF-κB. These improvements were similar to that of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) treatment. In contrast, αTP did not demonstrate evident clinical and histopathological improvements. The superior protective effect of TRF may be ascribed to the preferential absorption of TRF by the gut mucosa. TRF alleviated the signs and symptoms of acute UC in murine model via the reduction of local inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress. These effects suggested that TRF could serve as a gut health supplement for preventive measures for UC condition in patients.
Classical brown adipocytes, characterized by interscapular depots, have multilocular fat depots and are known to release excess energy. Recent studies have shown that induction of brown-like adipocytes, also referred to as beige or brite cells, in white adipose tissue (WAT) results in the release of excess energy through mitochondrial heat production via uncoupling protein 1. This has potential a therapeutic strategy for obesity and related diseases as well as classical brown adipocytes. In our previous studies, we found that artepillin C (ArtC, 10 mg/kg body weight), a characteristic constituent of Brazilian propolis, significantly induced the development of brown-like adipocytes in inguinal WAT (iWAT) of mice. Furthermore, we recently demonstrated that curcumin (Cur, 4.5 mg/kg) also significantly induced the development of brown-like adipocytes in mice. The combined administration of several food-derived factors can enhance their bioactivity and reduce their required functional doses. In this study, we showed that co-administration of Cur and ArtC at lower doses (Cur, 1.5 mg/kg; ArtC, 5 mg/kg) additively induce brown-like adipocyte development in mouse iWAT. Moreover, this induction is associated with the localized production of norepinephrine following accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages in iWAT. These findings suggest that co-administration of Cur and ArtC is significantly effective to reduce the dose and enhance the formation of brown-like adipocyte via a unique molecular mechanism.
Female athlete triad (FAT) is an interrelationship between menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability with or without eating disorder, and decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in female athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether isoflavone intake can prevent bone loss caused by voluntary wheel running under energy-restricted condition. We used a female rat model of osteoporosis for female athletes established previously. Fourteen female Sprague-Dawley rats (8-wk old) were fed ad libitum and had free access to wheels throughout the study. At 18 wk of age, the rats were divided randomly into the following groups: 1) running control (RC), 2) running energy restriction (RR), and 3) running energy restriction and isoflavone-fed (RR+Iso) groups. The RR group was 30% dietary restricted. The RR+Iso group was 30% dietary restricted and fed the diet containing 0.5% isoflavone powder (Fujiflavone P40). The experimental period lasted 31 wk. At the end of this experiment, BMD of the proximal femur in the RR group was significantly lower than that in the RC group. However, the BMD in the RR+Iso group was not significantly different from that in the RC group. Moreover, the plasma estradiol (E2) level in the RR and RR+Iso groups was significantly lower than that in the RC group. These findings suggest that isoflavone intake inhibited bone loss when the E2 level was low in female mature rat model. Our findings may reveal the possible novel role of isoflavone in osteoporosis among female athletes.
To assess the reliability and validity of the Dietary Supplement Choice Questionnaire (DSCQ) to capture dietary supplement choice motives among Japanese college athletes. The cross-sectional study was performed in 2014. This study recruited 1,451 college athletes from sports-oriented clubs at the University of Tsukuba, Japan. The participants completed the DSCQ, health literacy, and subjective economic status; part of the participants completed a test-retest (n=378). A sample of 975 participants (28.0% female) included in the analysis. The DSCQ was developed through factor analysis. Seven factors emerged, and were labelled “popularity,” “functionality,” “price,” “taste,” “convenience,” “antidoping” and “familiarity.” Mostly acceptable reliability was seen across seven DSCQ factors (the internal consistency, Cronbach’s α=0.62-0.85; the test-retest reliability coefficients, r=0.62-0.82), whereas convergent validity for price and antidoping factors was provided by significant associations with economic status and literacy (p<0.01). Findings showed reasonable evidence of reliability and validity of the DSCQ and provided the opportunity to comprehensively assess dietary supplement choice motives among Japanese college athletes.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a subtype of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has a potentially progressive course that can lead to liver cirrhosis. Age is strongly associated with the development and progression of NAFLD/NASH, but the natural history of pediatric NAFLD is still not fully understood. Here, we evaluated the age-related alterations of NASH in 5-, 9- and 13-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats that were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (30% fat, 1.25% cholesterol and 0.5% sodium cholate, w/w) for 9 wk (6 rats/group). Our results showed that the cumulative energy intake, body weight gain and food efficacy during the 9-wk rearing period were highest in the youngest group and lowest in the oldest group. Serologically, almost all parameters including the serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were similar regardless of age. Histopathological findings, such as hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation and hepatocyte ballooning, were also similar regardless of age, but hepatic fibrosis was more evident in the oldest group. Also, the mRNA expression levels of some fibrogenic, inflammatory, oxidative stress and cholesterol or lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver were highest in the oldest group and lowest in the youngest group, although the difference was not statistically significant. These results indicated that aging is likely associated with the development of NASH. Because the cumulative energy intake and daily food intake/body weight were not similar among groups in the present study, further studies designed with an equivalent daily food intake/body weight among groups are needed in order to interpret the exact nutritional effect.
Autophagy is a major intracellular proteolytic process that contributes to the maintenance of protein homeostasis. Recent studies reported the induction of autophagy in the uterus and proximal tibias of ovariectomized (OVX) rodents, which was blocked by the injection of ovarian hormones. However, whether OVX and ovarian hormone treatment can regulate autophagy in the liver has not been clarified. Recently, it was revealed that autophagy is closely involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of OVX on autophagy in the rat liver as a first step to clarify the relationship between hepatic fat accumulation and the change in autophagy caused by OVX. We found that hepatic autophagy tended to be lower in OVX rats than in sham-operated rats. In addition, hepatic autophagy in OVX rats was induced by short-term exposure to ovarian hormones, especially progesterone. This study suggests that autophagy in the rat liver is suppressed by OVX and activated by progesterone. However, the autophagy-promoting effect of β-estradiol was not clarified.
Observational and interventional studies have showed associations between dietary patterns and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of the present study was to identify dietary patterns and examine their association with incident of T2DM and physiopathologic mechanism in the Uygur population of Xinjiang, China. A community-based case control study in Urumqi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. We enrolled 836 Uygur adults (345 newly diagnosed T2DM and 491 healthy controls) receiving physical examination in community health service centers. Dietary patterns were evaluated using a validated 121 items semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). Dietary patterns were identified by exploratory factor analysis. Data on demographic, anthropometric, socioeconomic characteristics were collected. Homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and for β cell function (HOMA-β) were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression were used to estimate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of T2DM and multiple linear regression were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and fasting plasm glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, adjusting for confounding factors. Five major dietary patterns were identified: (1) the “vegetable and tubes” pattern; (2) the “fruit and nut” pattern; (3) the “refined grains and meat” pattern; (4) the “dairy, legume and egg” pattern; and (5) the “oil and salt” pattern. Logistic regression results demonstrated that the “vegetable and tubes” dietary pattern and the “fruit and nut” dietary pattern were related to T2DM, OR values were 0.223 (95% CI: 0.135-0.371), 0.160 (95% CI: 0.093-0.275), respectively. The “refined grains and meat” dietary pattern and the “oil and salt” dietary pattern were related to T2DM, OR values were 6.146 (95% CI: 3.217-11.739), 9.554 (95% CI: 5.668-16.104), respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the above five dietary patterns were related to log (FPG), β values were −0.040, −0.039, 0.028, −0.010 and 0.036, respectively, all p<0.05. The “vegetable and tubes” pattern, the “fruit and nut” pattern, the “refined grains and meat” pattern and the “oil and salt” pattern were related to log (HOMA-IR), β values were −0.061, −0.060, 0.045, and 0.042, and were related to log (HOMA-β), β values were 0.071, 0.063, −0.035 and −0.070, respectively, all p<0.05. The “refined grains and meat” dietary pattern and the “oil and salt” dietary pattern may be the important reason for the rapid increase of T2DM incidence among Chinese Uygur residents. Our findings suggest that modifying dietary patterns could reduce T2DM incidence in the adult Uygur population.