The effects of high concentrations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), vitamin E and ferulic acid solutions on the aging of male and female scenescene-accelerated mouse (SAMP8) at the age of 50 wk were examined by direct supplementation to their stomachs twice a week for 28-30d. The addition of 1 mL of DMSP, vitamin E and ferulic acid solutions (2% each) to the male and female mice in each group in this order rather elevated their growth and significantly suppressed their total grading score and loss of learning and memory with increasing rearing times for the short experimental period. However, there were no significant differences found between the male and female mice during the experimental period. The antioxidant and hormonal actions for the effects of the test compounds on the aged SAMP8 were possibly considered.
Various factors influence Folate status and requirements. To investigate the folate status in young Japanese women (n=340, 20-22y), I determined the serum folate and total homocysteine (tHcy), and examined the influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism on folate status in a subgroup of 252 of the women. I calculated folate consumption based on records of food intake weighed over 3 d using the standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (5th revised edition) and the US Food Composition Table based on the USDA nutrient database excluding fortification. Serum folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) levels were determined by chemiluminescent-competitive protein binding assay and HPLC, respectively. The mean intake of folate was 323±133 and 196±71μg/d, and 86.5% and 42.1% of the participants consumed more than the RDA of 200μg of folate, according to the Japanese and US tables, respectively. The main sources of dietary folate were vegetables, green tea and bread. Serum folate levels were significantly correlated with folate intake (r=0.249, p<0.001). Serum tHcy levels were above 15μmol/L in four participants. I found significant negative correlations between serum tHcy and folate intake (r=-0.175, p<0.05), and between serum tHcy and serum folate (r=-0.297, p<0.0001). The frequencies of the CC, CT and TT genotypes of the MTHFR gene were 32.9, 51.6 and 15.5%, respectively. Among individuals with the TT genotype, serum folate and tHcy levels were lower and higher, respectively, than in those with the other genotypes, regardless of folate intake above RDA. These data suggest that the current RDA of folate estimated based on foreign data might not be sufficient for Japanese and that this value might require reassessment.
Isoflavones are reported to have an estrogenic activity to prevent prostate can-cer. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the factors influencing the absorption and metabo-lism of isoflavones using detailed and precise dietary information. We evaluated the relationship between the amount of intake of soybean isoflavones in the diet and its serum levels in 88 hospitalized patients (22 with prostate cancer, 66 without cancer) with a mean age of 67.0±9.3y. The intake amount of genistein and daidzein was significantly lower in the hospital diet than that in the ordinary daily diet. The serum levels of isoflavones were related to the amount of intake consumed during the day before blood collection (r=0.27 for genistein, r=0.33 for daidzein), but not to the last meal before blood collection. While lit-tle relationship was observed between the amount of intake and serum levels of isoflavones in the equol producers, a marked relationship was noted in the non-producers (r=0.52 for genlsteln, r=0.67 for daidzein). Blood isoflavone levels decreased when the duration of the hospitalization was longer than 1 wk. These observations indicate that the serum isoflavone levels are correlated with the amount of intake of isoflavones during the preceding 2 wk and serve as an effective biomarker in individuals during the intake of the hospital diet. Further investigations, including the mechanism of the metabolism on isoflavones, are necessary for the evaluation of the preventive effect of isoflavones.
The hypolipidemic effect of dietary methanol fraction (BMMF) extracted from bitter melon (Koimidori variety), at the levels of 05% and 1.0%, was examined in male golden Syrian hamsters fed diets supplemented with and without cholesterol. The feeding of BMMF at 0.5% and 1.0% levels in the diets for 4 wk tended to reduce food intake and growth, although there was no difference in food efficiency (weight gain/food intake). An effect of dietary BMMF on serum triglyceride was not seen in hamsters fed diets free of cholesterol, while hypertriglyceridemia induced by dietary cholesterol was significantly lowered in a dose-dependent manner in those fed diets containing the BMMF. Serum total cholesterol concentration also tended to decrease in a dose-dependent manner following feeding of increasing amounts of BMMF in the presence and absence of cholesterol in the diet. The effects of dietary BMMF on liver triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were marginal, although dietary cholesterol caused a marked accumulation of these lipid molecules in the liver. These results suggest that the BMMF contains some components that could ameliorate lipid disorders such as hyperlipidemia.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a high-methionine plus cholesterol diet (HM+HC) on plasma, erythrocyte, liver and aorta lipid, lipid peroxide levels, and the liver antioxidant system, as well as hepatic and aortic histopathology in C57BL/6J mice, and to compare these results to those observed following administration of a high-methionine (HM) or high-cholesterol diet (HC) alone. Mice were fed diets containing 1.5% methionine, 1.5% cholesterol and 05% cholic acid, or a combination of the two diets, for 4 mo. The HM diet did not alter cholesterol or diene conjugate (DC) levels in the plasma or aorta, but this diet caused increases in cholesterol, triglyceride, malondialdehyde (MDA) and DC levels and a decrease in a-tocopherol levels without any change in the levels of glutathione and ascorbic acid or the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase in the liver of mice. However, the HC diet alone was found to further increase cholesterol, triglyceride, MDA and DC levels in the plasma and liver together with changes in hepatic antioxidant system elements, but aortic cholesterol and DC levels remained unchanged as compared to the control group. There were no changes in blood hemoglobin and erythrocyte MDA levels or erythrocyte hemolysis values in both the HM and HC groups. However, the parameters related to lipid and lipid peroxide and antioxidant systems did not change in the plasma or tissues of the HM+HC and HC groups. Only plasma cholesterol was observed to increase in the HM+HC group as compared to the HC group. In addition, histopathological findings in the liver and aorta were similar in the HC and HM+HC groups. In conclusion, our results indicate that the addition of methionine to the HC diet did not augment oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity or atherosclerotic changes induced by the HC diet in mice.
During weaning, rat lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) expression decreased to the low levels found in adults, while sucrase-isomaltase (SI) sharply increased. Calbindin-D9k (CaBP) is specific to the intestine and expression peaked within a few days of weaning. The present study investigates whether these molecules are regulated at transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels and examines the effects of diet on regulation. At normal weaning on day 21, litters were separated from their dams and one group was fed with a standard laboratory diet (weaned (W) group). The other group received a diet containing lactose as the sole source of carbohydrate (lactose-fed (L) group). Mucosal cells were obtained from the proximal part of the rat small intestine and then the activity and concentration of LPH, SI and CaBP proteins and mRNAs were determined. Three parameters revealed the same changing patterns in LPH, SI and CaBP during development and there was significant (p<0.001) correlation between three parameters; LPH, r=0.97 for activity vs. protein, r=0.99 for activity vs. mRNA, r=0.96 for protein vs. mRNA, SI, r=0.99 for activity vs. protein, r=0.98 for activity vs. mRNA, r=0.96 for protein vs. mRNA, CaBP, r=0.94 for activity vs. protein, r=0.97 for activity vs. mRNA, r=0.95 for protein vs. mRNA. Expression of the three proteins did not differ between the L and W groups. Accordingly, it has been suggested that the expression of LPH, SI and CaBP during development is defined at the transcriptional level and dietary changes do not exert a primary effect on it.
We compared the efficacy of alpha-linolenic acid (α-LNA, n-3) and linoleic acid (LA, n-6) on orotic acid (OA)-induced fatty liver in Sprague-Dawley rats, Rats were fed semi-synthetic diets containing either LA or α-LNA With or without 1% OA for 2 wk, OA supplementation lowered serum lipids in LA+OA groups. In addition to the decline of serum lipids in α-LNA groups compared to LA groups, a further decrease was found in α-LNA+OA groups compared to LA+OA groups. OA-containing diets significantly increased the liver weights and triacylglycerol (TG) accumulations compared with the OA-free diets. These results were attributed to the significant increases in the activities of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP), a rate-limiting enzyme of TG synthesis, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, a fatty acid synthesis-related enzyme. However, the increase of PAP activity was significantly less in the α-LNA+OA group as compared with the LA+OA group, These results suggest that dietary α-LNA alleviates OA-induced hepatic TG accumulation through the attenuation of hepatic TG synthesis in rats
Endogenous natriuretic factors are believed to be responsible for extracellular fluid homeostasis in mammals. A new endogenous natriuretic factor, Loma Linda Univer-sity-alpha (LLU-α) has recently been proven to be a 2, 7, 8-trimethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (γ-CEHC), which is a metabolite of γ-tocopherol (γ-Toc). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether γ-Toc could accelerate sodium excretion into rat urine as a natriuretic hormone precursor. Male SD strain rats were divided into two groups; one was a control diet group, while the other was a high NaCI group (50g/kg diet). Next, the two groups were each subdivided into two groups consisting of a placebo group and a γ-Toc group. After the oral administration of one experimental dose of 20mg γ-Toc or placebo, rat urine was collected at 6h intervals for 24h, and then the urine volume, sodium and potas-sium and γ-CEHC content were determined, γ-Toc increased in the urine volume of the high-NaCl intake group. The sodium excretion in the high-NaCl group given γ-Toc was 8.29±2.20g, while in the control group given γ-Toc it was 6.24±1.49g from 12-18h. In contrast, the potassium excretion in the rat urine did not change in any of the groups. Our findings suggested that γ-Toc accelerates the degree of sodium excretion in rats with a high sodium intake.
A significant increase in calculation ability was observed in the glucose, fructose and sucrose administration groups during both the first and second half of the Uchida Kraepelin test. There was no significant difference in alpha waves between carbohydrate groups (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and control groups at baseline. After a stress situation, there was a significant increase in alpha waves at 11-20min (p<0.05) in glucose, 11-20min (p<0.01) and 21-30min (p<0.01) in fructose, and 0-10min (p<0.05) in sucrose compared, with each control group. There was no significant difference in beta waves in any of the paired groups.
Uptake of iron and several other minerals into kaiware daikon (Japanese radish sprout) was investigated by changing their supplementary conditions. The supplementation of calcium sulfate (0.1% (w/v), 230ppm as calcium ion) and iron (III) chloride (0.1% (w/v), 200ppm as iron ion) in hydroponics promoted the growth of kaiware daikon ca. 1.0-1.5 cm longer than the control group of no additions, while magnesium sulfate (0.1% (w/v), 100ppm as magnesium ion) did not affect the length of sprouts so much, but caused their leaves to grow a little wider. Mineral contents in the sprout were maximal when it was added, at ca. 0.1% (w/v), to the hydroponic solution. In tests regarding iron (II) ion supplementation, the color of the kaiware daikon seeds changed from brownish to black and the sprout did not grow well. In contrast, the iron (III) ion did not affect their color and promoted growth of the sprout. When the seeds were soaked in an iron (II) sulfate (75ppm) or an ammonium iron (III) citrate (180ppm) solution for 24 h prior to germination, the resulting kaiware daikon contained a few times higher the amount of iron than commercially available ones.
In this paper, the saccharification process of okara fiber with pectinase, xylanase and cellulase was investigated as a preliminary attempt to effectively utilize okara fiber. The solubilization of okara fiber was raised in proportion to the number of enzymes used; that is, by a single enzyme, two enzymes and three enzymes, in that order. The saccharification of okara fiber was much more completed by a combination of pectinase, xylanase and cellulase than by using individual preparations. This multi-enzyme system liberated sugars equivalent to 80% of the original okara fiber by weight. Moreover the structure of okara fiber gradually disintegrated by hydrolytic reactions with pectinase, xylanase and cellulase in turns. These results suggest that the saccharification of okara fiber progresses by the cooperative action of pectinase, xylanase and cellulase.
Treatment of human stomach cancer KATO III cells with hot-water extracts from adzuki beans led to their growth inhibition as well as apoptosis induction. There are morphological changes in the cultured cells treated with the extracts, by which DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis was actualized both concentration-and time-dependently. In contrast, N-acetyl-L-cysteine suppressed such DNA fragmentation, implying that the extracts from adzuki beans might exert antitumorigenicity via active oxygen-induced apoptosis. In order to verify this hypothesis in animal experiment, the 40% ethanol fraction of hot-water extracts was examined for its preventive effect against benzo(a)pyreneinduced tuorigenesis in the forestomach of A/J mice, given as drinking water containing the above fraction at 0.5-2.0% levels. Consequently, forestomach cancer has turned out to be reduced by 36-62% in tumor weight relative to the control. These results suggest that the fraction of hot-water adzuki extracts may serve as a nutrapharmaceutical or functional food available for cancer prevention.
Genetically diabetic (type II) KK-Ay mice, male and 5 wk of age, were divided into four groups and fed test diets containing 2 (2F), 5 (5F), 10 (10F), or 20 (20F)% fat for 4 wk, and then the 5F group and one-half of the 20F group continued to be fed the corresponding diet and the other half of the latter group was given the 20F (20FHWE) diet with 5% hot-Water extracts (HWE) from woody ear (Auricularia auricula-judge Ouel.) for a further 3 wk. Remarkable changes in body weight were unfound among the dietary groups. The food intake generally decreased according to the increase in dietary fat content, but the energy expenditure was hardly different among the dietary groups except for the 20FHWE group. That of the 20FHWE group was further decreased compared to the 20F group. Water consumption dropped in the order of the 20F, 5F, and 20FHWE groups. The plasma glucose concentration was the highest in the 20F group, followed in order by the 10F and 5F groups, and the lowest in the 2F and 20FHWE groups. The contents of dietary fat were most positively correlated with the plasma glucose level. The present results using KK-Ay mice confirm that dietary fat levels control postprandial glycaemia, and suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of HWE is primarily caused by a reduction in food ingestion.