Although the kidneys play a leading part in the biosynthesis of vitamin D, there is no consensus regarding the relationship of the vitamin D concentration with kidney function. Thus, we aimed to estimate the correlation among 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in participants aged ≥50 y in Korea. This study consisted of 9,166 people who participated in a basic survey of the Dong-gu Study. Following an overnight fast, the blood and urine sample were assessed. The serum 25(OH)D, eGFR, ACR of each subject were measured. When adjusting for covariates and log-transformed ACR (Model III), the lower eGFR value was significantly associated with increasing 25(OH)D levels (<10.0: 71.5[70.5-72.4]; 10.0-14.9: 70.0 [69.5-70.4]; 15.0-19.9: 68.7 [68.3-69.2]; ≥20.0: 67.4 [66.8-67.9] mL/min/1.73 m2, p<0.001). When adjusted for the same covariates and log-transformed eGFR (Model III), the lower ACR value was significantly associated with increasing 25(OH)D levels (<10.0: 57.4 [48.0-66.9]; 10.0-14.9: 40.8 [36.5-45.2]; 15.0-19.9: 34.0 [29.5-38.5]; ≥20.0: 34.3 [28.8-39.8] μg/mg creatinine, p<0.001). In conclusion, the mean values of eGFR were significantly decreased with increasing 25(OH)D levels independent of ACR. In additon, the mean values of ACR were significantly decreased with increasing 25(OH)D levels independent of eGFR in participants aged ≥50 y in Korea.
We have reported that vitamin E intake lowers phylloquinone (PK) concentration in extrahepatic tissues of rats. In this study, we aimed to clarify the characteristic of the distribution of menaquinone-7 (MK-7), a vitamin K contained in fermented foods, by comparison with other vitamin K distributions and to clarify the effect of vitamin E intake on MK-7 concentration in rats. Rats were fed a vitamin K-free diet (Free group), a diet containing 0.75 mg PK/kg (PK group), a 0.74 mg menaquinone-4 (MK-4)/kg diet (MK-4 group), a 1.08 mg MK-7/kg diet (MK-7 group), or a 0.29 mg menadione (MD)/kg diet (MD group) for 16 wk. MK-7 mainly accumulated in the liver, spleen, and adrenal gland of the MK-7 group, although PK accumulated in the serum and all tissues of the PK group. Conversely, MK-4 was present in all tissues of the PK, MK-4, MK-7, and MD groups. MK-4 concentration in the serum, liver, adipose tissue, and spleen was higher in the MK-4 group than in the other groups; however, MK-4 concentration in the kidney, testis, tibia, and brain was lower in the MK-4 group than in the PK, MK-7, and MD groups. Next, vitamin E- and K-deficient rats were orally administered MK-7 with or without α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol did not affect MK-7 or MK-4 concentration in the serum and various tissues. These results suggested that MK-7 is particularly liable to accumulate in the liver, and MK-7 concentration is not affected by vitamin E intake.
To elucidate the characteristics of γ-tocopherol metabolism, serum concentrations of α- and γ-tocopherol, and urinary excretion of their metabolites after ingestion of α- or γ-tocopherol, major isoforms in our diet, were compared. Six healthy Japanese women (age 22.7±1.7 y old, BMI 21.4±0.9) ingested 134 mg of α- or γ-tocopherol, and blood and urine were collected until 72 h later. After α-tocopherol intake, the serum concentration of α-tocopherol increased at 12-24 h, and urinary excretion of 2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2(2′-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (α-CEHC), an α-tocopherol metabolite, increased at 12-36 h. However, after γ-tocopherol intake, the serum concentration of γ-tocopherol increased at 6-12 h, and excretion of 2,7,8-trimethyl-2(2′-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (γ-CEHC), a γ-tocopherol metabolite, increased at 3-12 h. The area under the curve from 0 to 72 h and serum maximal concentration of γ-tocopherol were lower than those of α-tocopherol. The time to maximal concentration of γ-tocopherol was faster than that of α-tocopherol. The ratio of urinary excretion of carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman to tocopherol intake was 2.9% for α-CEHC and 7.7% for γ-CEHC. These results revealed that γ-tocopherol is metabolized faster than α-tocopherol in healthy young women.
The aim of this study was to verify the protective effects of ascorbic acid (AsA) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. The study was conducted using osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats, which are unable to synthesize AsA. Male ODS rats (6 wk old) were fed either an AsA-free diet (AsA-deficient group), a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg AsA (control group), or a diet supplemented with 3,000 mg/kg AsA (high-AsA group) for 8 d. On day 8, all the rats were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (15 mg/kg body weight). Forty-eight hours after the injection, the survival rates of the rats in the control (39%) and the high-AsA (61%) groups were significantly higher than that in the AsA-deficient group (5.5%). Next, we measured several inflammatory parameters during 10 h after administering LPS. At 6 h, elevated serum levels of markers for hepatic and systemic injuries were suppressed in rats fed AsA. Similarly, 10 h after LPS injection, the elevation in the serum levels of markers for renal injury were also suppressed proportionally to the amount of AsA in the diet. The elevated serum concentrations of TNFα and IL-1β by LPS in the AsA-deficient group decreased in groups fed AsA. Hematic TNFα mRNA levels at 6 h after the LPS injection were also lowered by feeding AsA. These results demonstrated that the dietary intake of AsA improved the survival rates and suppressed the inflammatory damage, in a dose-dependent manner, caused during sepsis induced by LPS in ODS rats.
The present study aims to determine the most suitable dietary balance of energy-producing nutrients for recovery from starvation. Rats were fed their standard high- carbohydrate diet (HCD, carbohydrate energy : protein energy : fat energy=71 : 18 : 11) for 7 d and then deprived of food for 3 d (short-term starvation) or 8 d (long-term starvation). The starved rats were then fed the HCD, a high-protein diet (HPD, 31 : 57 : 12), or a high-fat diet (HFD, 34 : 14 : 52) for 8 d. Rats had ad libitum access to drinking water throughout the experimental period, including the starvation period. The reference group was allowed free access to the HCD throughout the experimental period. Characteristically, increased drinking, increased urea nitrogen in the plasma and urine, and hypertrophy of the kidneys, were observed in the HPD group. Furthermore, the recovery of plasma glucose level was insufficient in this group. Therefore, administration of a HPD was contraindicated in recovery from starvation. The recovery of body weight after starvation was excellent in the HFD group. No effect on the metabolism of B-group vitamins involved in energy metabolism was found with the administration of any diet. The effects of HCD and HFD administration on recovery from starvation were investigated in further detail. No adverse effects were observed on the tissue to body weight mass ratios or biochemical parameters in blood in the HFD group. From the above findings, it is hypothesized that a HFD is most suitable for quickly reversing the influence of starvation.
The aim of this study is to investigate how vegetable and fruit intake trends affect the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by analyzing therapeutic diet status in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The study included 59 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean age: 70.1±7.8 y) who had previously received therapeutic education for type 2 diabetes mellitus from a clinical team and were subsequently receiving outpatient treatment. Blood examination data were retrospectively collected from medical records and diet status was investigated using a simplified self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted using principal component analysis, and the relationships with each blood examination data were investigated. Linear regression analysis was then used to examine the intake food groups related to eGFR. Energy intake was 27±9 kcal/kg. Overall, these results were in line with the Guidelines for the Treatment of Diabetes in Japan 2016. As a result of principal component analysis, seven dietary patterns were extracted, and the cumulative contribution ratio of the seven components was 74.0%. Among the dietary patterns, the 6th factor (positive weighting with fruit) for eGFR was a negative prognostic factor (p=0.010). Analysis of food group intake and eGFR indicated that green and yellow vegetables were positive prognostic factors, whereas fruits were negative prognostic factors (both p<0.05). The dietary patterns dependent on green and yellow vegetables and fruit intake appeared to influence eGFR positively and negatively, respectively.
A higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration benefits colorectal cancer prevention. However, whether it can improve the prognosis among patients is still under discussion. This study aims to explore the impacts of high level 25(OH)D on the survival of colorectal cancer patients. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane were searched from January 2000 to August 2017 for relevant articles. Only published studies focusing on the relationship between 25(OH)D levels at or near the time of diagnosis and survival were considered. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias for each study, and any disagreement was resolved by discussion or by involving a third assessor. Eleven studies comprising 7,367 patients were included. In these studies, there were considerable differences between the higher 25(OH)D level group and the lower group in terms of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and colorectal cancer-specific survival (CSS) in a random effect model (OS: HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.56-0.80, p<0.00001; CSS: HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.97, p=0.03; PFS: HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61-0.90, p=0.003). Moreover, the combined hazard ratios of OS and CSS had considerably significant heterogeneity which may be explained by subgroup analysis. The relationship between 25(OH)D and tumor characteristics/lifestyle factors was also included in the meta-analysis. BMI (p=0.03), smoking (p=0.03) and physical activity (p=0.002) seemed to be associated with circulating 25(OH)D level. Publication bias was undetected. Colorectal cancer patients with higher circulating 25(OH)D level may have a better prognosis.
This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of sarcopenia, which is characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, and its relationship with nutritional state and quality of life (QOL) in patients with digestive diseases. This study enrolled 303 patients (187 men and 116 women with a median age of 70 y) having digestive diseases. Diseases were gastrointestinal in 99 patients, biliary/pancreatic in 93, and hepatic in 111. Skeletal muscle cross-sectional area was measured by abdominal computed tomography at the 3rd vertebra (L3) level. Sarcopenia was defined using the L3 skeletal muscle index and hand grip strength. Nutritional state was assessed by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Mini nutritional Assessment®-Short Form (MNA®-SF), anthropometry, and blood biochemistry. QOL was evaluated by Short Form-8TM. Prevalence of sarcopenia was 32.0% in overall cases. The value was 22.2% in gastrointestinal disease, 36.6% in biliary/pancreatic disease, and 36.9% in hepatic disease. Advanced age, male sex, and advanced cancer state were associated with development of sarcopenia. Patients with sarcopenia had a significantly worse nutritional state according to SGA and MNA®-SF than those without sarcopenia. In anthropometry, % arm muscle area, % calf circumference, and body mass index were significantly lower in the sarcopenic group. Serum albumin and hemoglobin were also significantly lower in the sarcopenia patients. QOL was more impaired in physical component subscales in sarcopenia patients than non-sarcopenia ones. Patients with digestive diseases frequently suffer from sarcopenia and this is associated with worsening of nutritional state and QOL in these patients.
A case-control study of 10,228 gestational women was conducted in Lanzhou, China, between 2010 and 2012. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between the risk of gestational hypertensive disorders and dietary intake of vitamin C/E. Among this study’s participants, 5.41% (n=553) were diagnosed with gestational hypertensive disorders. Of these disorders, 69.44% (n=384) were preeclampsia and 30.56% (n=169) were considered to be gestational hypertension. After adjustment for confounding variables and other relevant dietary nutrients, no association was found between the risk of gestational hypertensive disorders and dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, copper or manganese before or during pregnancy. However, zinc and selenium intake was associated with the decrease risk of gestational hypertensive disease during different stages of pregnancy (p<0.05). Gestational dietary intake of zinc and selenium can significantly decrease the risk of gestational hypertensive disorders. No association was found between gestational hypertensive disorders and vitamin C, vitamin E, copper or manganese intake.
The radical scavenging activity of commercially available roasted (deep colored) and unroasted (light colored) egoma (Perilla frutescens var. frutescens) oils was evaluated by the DPPH radical scavenging method. The antiradical activity of roasted oils was higher than that of unroasted oils, and the activity of methanol-water extracts from the roasted egoma oils was significantly higher than that of unroasted oils. The antiradical activity of the methanol-water fractions was strongly correlated to that of whole oils (r=0.72) and the color depth of oils (r=0.93), which was an index of roasting. Fractionation of the methanol-water extract of a roasted egoma oil according to molecular size using ultra membrane filters revealed that the fraction under 3 kDa had the strongest radical scavenging activity. Subsequent preparative HPLC separation using an ODS column also revealed that the second fraction was the most active. Our HPLC analytical method for DPPH radical scavengers in complex mixtures detected four strong radical scavenger peaks in the fraction. Among the detected peaks, two peaks were determined to be derived from rosmarinic acid and luteolin by comparison with the retention times and UV spectra of the authentic samples, and the other two compounds could not be identified because no characteristic UV spectra were observed. These identified polyphenols (rosmarinic acid and luteolin) have been reported to be present in the non-oily part of egoma seeds. They probably migrated to the oily part during the egoma oil roasting process.
We investigated the association of self-reported difficulty of food access, accounting for the perception of food-store accessibility, with nutrient intake among 474 inhabitants (145 men and 329 women) aged ≥40 y in a rural area of Japan. Information on self-reported difficulty of food access and dietary intake was obtained via a self-administrated questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was performed to evaluate the adjusted associations between difficulty of food access and percentages of total energy (i.e., protein, fat, and carbohydrates). Among men, the adjusted means of percent energy from fat in the “difficulty of food access” group (19.2% energy) were significantly lower (by 2.4%) and the percent energy from carbohydrates for this group (57.3% energy) was significantly higher (by 3.3%) than for the “non-difficulty” group. In conclusion, this study found nutritional balance among residents experiencing difficulty of food access results in lower fat and higher carbohydrate intake than for those with non-difficulty of food access among middle-aged and older Japanese men in a rural area.
Oral tolerance prevents allergic responses, but cutaneous exposure to food allergens predisposes individuals to food allergies. Soybean, a major allergenic food, is also an ingredient in various cosmetic products. However, it remains to be determined whether oral tolerance prevents percutaneous sensitization to soybean proteins in humans or animal models. In this study, BALB/c mice were divided into three groups; the SS group fed a soybean-containing diet, and the CS and control (C) groups fed a soybean-free diet. After being dorsally shaved, the CS and SS groups were epicutaneously exposed to a soybean extract while the control group was exposed to only the carrier. Specific IgE and IgG1 immunoglobulins secreted in response to the soybean proteins were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Exposure to the soybean extract elicited the secretion of IgE and IgG1 specific for Gly m 5 and Gly m 6, and trypsin inhibitor. Oral soybean consumption attenuated the secretion of all the soybean-specific IgEs and IgG1s, suggesting that percutaneous sensitization to soybean proteins is attenuated by oral tolerance.