This research aimed to investigate factors associated with vitamin D deficiency and to provide data about its prevalence in patients suffering from different psychiatric illnesses. The study had a cross-sectional design and it included 220 patients of both genders, aged from 19-81 y, with a wide range of mental disorders (F00-F89), and treated in routine ambulatory and hospital practice. The researchers collected data from three sources: medical records, a study questionnaire and biochemical analysis of patients’ serum samples (concentration of vitamin D measured as 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, methods for hypothesis testing and binary logistic regression, at the p≤0.05 level. A total of 140 patients (64%) had a deficiency of vitamin D (<12 ng/mL), and 45 (20%) had inadequate vitamin D serum levels (12-20 ng/mL), while 35 (16%) had sufficient vitamin D serum concentrations (>20 ng/mL). Among variables related to demographics, life style habits, mental illness, comorbid disorders and drugs, two of them, female gender (odds ratio (OR)=2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.3-4.9, p=0.006) and using clozapine (OR=15.6, 95% CI 1.7-144.7, p=0.02), were significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency. Physical activity (OR= 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p=0.02), exercising (OR=0.2, 95% CI <0.1-0.7, p=0.02) and offal in the diet (OR=0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9, p=0.03) significantly aggregated in the patients who had a 25(OH)D serum concentration above the deficiency cut-off level. Patients with mental disorders are at high risk for vitamin D deficiency, particularly females and clozapine users as well as those having no adequate physical activity or dietary habits.
The aim of the study was the assessment of the impact of supplementation with folic acid on the concentration of homocysteine, total cholesterol (TC), HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), apoprotein AI (apoAI) and apoprotein B (apoB) in patients suffering from primary hypertension. The examined group comprised 42 patients suffering from primary hypertension. All examined patients underwent laboratory tests as follows: concentration of homocysteine, folic acid, TC, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TG, apoAI and apoB. All patients were orally administered with 15 mg of folic acid per day for 45 d. After this period, all laboratory tests were repeated. Homocysteine concentration was measured by the FPIA method, concentrations of apoAI and apoB were measured by the nephelometric method, and other parameters with routine methods. After administration of 15 mg of folic acid to patients with primary hypertension, a considerable decrease in the concentration of homocysteine was observed in parallel with a substantive growth of HDL-cholesterol, as well as apoprotein AI concentrations and a reduction of the apoprotein B concentration. Results of statistical analysis indicated a significant correlation between the decline in homocysteine concentration and the increase in HDL-cholesterol concentration, as well as between the increase of folic acid concentration and the increase in apoAI concentration in patients following the intake of folic acid. The drop in homocysteine concentration through the supplementation with folic acid can cause quantitative changes in the lipid and lipoprotein parameters which, in consequence, may lead to the mitigation of risk concerning the development of atherosclerosis.
We propose a new oral immunotherapy (OIT) method that includes a small amount of a food allergen in the diet. However, it is not clear whether this method will induce oral desensitization and immune tolerance. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic effectiveness using a 1% food allergen diet in an allergic mouse model. C3H/HeJ mice were sensitized to ovomucoid (OM) in alum four times at 12-d intervals. Sensitized mice were divided into two groups: the OIT group (19% casein diet with 1% OM) and the non-treated group (20% casein diet without OM). The non-sensitized mice served as the non-allergy group. The OIT treatment was performed for 4 wk. To assess desensitization and immune tolerance, we performed oral and intraperitoneal OM challenges, assessed vascular permeability of the dorsal skin, and measured allergic biomarkers. The OIT group exhibited significantly lower oral symptom scores and vascular permeability than the non-treated group, but the two groups did not differ in intraperitoneal allergy symptom scores. Furthermore, the OIT group had significantly higher OM-specific IgA levels in their plasma than the non-treated group. However, the plasma levels of OM-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a were not significantly different between the OIT and the non-treated groups. These results suggest that the proposed OIT using an OM-supplemented diet may induce desensitization, but not immune tolerance, in an OM allergic mouse model.
Egg white (EW) is known as a nutritional protein but can induce allergic reactions in humans. We investigated the dietary effects of EW and its hydrolysate (EWH), which contains less allergen, on body fat accumulation in Wistar rats fed an equicaloric high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 8 wk (Exp A). The pair-feeding of EW and equicaloric-feeding of EWH increased fecal fat excretion and suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver and muscles but not in the abdominal adipose tissues, carcass, or total body. Dietary EWH also suppressed the serum glucose level and alkaline phosphatase activity. Further, we showed a higher dispersibility of EW and EWH in physicochemical assay (Exp B). Next, we investigated the suppressive effects of a single administration of EW and EWH on lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia and small intestinal meal transit in ddY mice (Exp C). However, a single administration of EW or EWH did not suppress the lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia nor did it delay the rate of small intestinal transit. These findings indicated that dietary EW and EWH reduce hepatic and muscular (ectopic) fat accumulation mainly by suppressing fat absorption and supplying fat to the liver and muscles. Therefore, the low-allergenic EWH can be effective for the prevention of high-fat-diet-induced obesity.
Bone mass decreases along with aging, especially for women after menopause because of lower estrogen secretion together with low calcium intake. This study was conducted to study the effect of eggshell calcium supplementation on bone mass in 54 postmenopausal Vietnamese women living in a farming area about 60 km from Hanoi, Vietnam. Sets of 3 subjects matched by age, bone mass, BMI and calcium intake were divided randomly into 3 groups with 18 subjects in each group. The eggshell calcium group was administered 300 mg/d calcium from eggshell, the calcium carbonate group 300 mg/d calcium from calcium carbonate and the placebo group received no calcium supplementation. Bone mass (Speed of Sound (SOS)) was measured at the beginning (the baseline), the middle (6th month) and the end of the study (12th month) by the single blind method. SOS of the eggshell group increased significantly at 12 mo (p<0.05) and was significantly higher than that of the placebo and calcium carbonate groups at 12 mo (p<0.05). The SOS of the calcium carbonate group tended to be higher than that of the placebo group but without a significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, eggshell calcium was more effective in increasing bone mass than calcium carbonate in postmenopausal Vietnamese women.
Gluten-free (GF) products are those with a natural absence or acceptable level (<20 mg/kg) of gluten. They should be a part of a diet for people with gluten-related disorders, like celiac disease. Recently the popularity of a gluten-free diet (GFD) has risen extremely, because a lot of healthy individuals exclude gluten from their menus. According to the literature data on nutritional deficiencies in the GFD, this trend seems to be risky. This paper describes the nutritional value of 14 flours from different GF raw materials from the aspect of B-group vitamin content (B1, B2, B3, B6). Vitamins were determined using high performance liquid chromatography after enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of the samples. The vitamin contents significantly differed in the analysed flours. The content (in 100 g of the product) of vitamin B1 ranged from 0.01 mg (amaranth flour) to 0.60 mg (teff flour), vitamin B2 from 0.03 mg (GF flour with oats) to 0.22 mg (buckwheat flour), vitamin B3 from below 0.01 mg (amaranth flour) to 6.02 mg (millet flour), and vitamin B6 from 0.03 mg (acorn flour) to 0.69 mg (amaranth flour). The content of vitamins in the analysed GF flours was also compared to gluten-containing flours. Obtained results indicate that flours from teff, millet, chestnut, buckwheat, and amaranth are better sources of certain B-group vitamins than flours from corn, rice, and some flours with gluten.
The combined supplementation of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), L-leucine-rich amino acids, and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) increase muscle strength and function in frail elderly individuals. However, their effects on cognition are unknown. We enrolled 38 elderly nursing home residents (mean age±SD, 86.6±4.8 y) in a 3-mo randomized, controlled, parallel group trial. The participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups: the first group received a L-leucine (1.2 g)- and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g of MCT (LD+MCT); the second group received the same supplement with 6 g of long-chain triglycerides (LD+LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control). Cognition was assessed at baseline and after the 3-mo intervention. The difference in changes among the groups was assessed with ANCOVA, adjusting for age and the baseline value as covariates. After 3 mo, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score in the LD+MCT group increased by 10.6% (from 16.6 to 18.4 points, p<0.05). After 3 mo, the Nishimura geriatric rating scale for mental status (NM scale) score in the LD+MCT group increased by 30.6% (from 24.6 to 32.2 points, p<0.001), whereas that in the LD+LCT and control groups decreased by 11.2% (from 31.2 to 27.7 points, p<0.05) and 26.1% (from 27.2 to 20.1 points, p<0.001), respectively. The combined supplementation of MCTs (6 g), L-leucine-rich amino acids, and cholecalciferol may improve cognitive function in frail elderly individuals.
Estimated energy requirements (EERs) are important for sports based on body weight classifications to aid in weight management. The basis for establishing EERs varies and includes self-reported energy intake (EI), predicted energy expenditure, and measured daily energy expenditure. Currently, however, no studies have been performed with male wrestlers using the highly accurate and precise doubly labeled water (DLW) method to estimate energy and fluid requirement. The primary aim of this study was to compare total energy expenditure (TEE), self-reported EI, and the difference in collegiate wrestlers during a normal training period using the DLW method. The secondary aims were to measure the water turnover and the physical activity level (PAL) of the athletes, and to examine the accuracy of two currently used equations to predict EER. Ten healthy males (age, 20.4±0.5 y) belonging to the East-Japan college league participated in this study. TEE was measured using the DLW method, and EI was assessed with self-reported dietary records for ~1 wk. There was a significant difference between TEE (17.9±2.5 MJ•d−1 [4,283±590 kcal•d−1]) and self-reported EI (14.4±3.3 MJ•d−1 [3,446±799 kcal•d−1]), a difference of 19%. The water turnover was 4.61±0.73 L•d−1. The measured PAL (2.6±0.3) was higher than two predicted values during the training season and thus the two EER prediction equations produced underestimated values relative to DLW. We found that previous EERs were underestimating requirements in collegiate wrestlers and that those estimates should be revised.
Type-2 bitter-taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are important for the evaluation of food quality and the nutritional control in animals. Mutations in some TAS2Rs including TAS2R38 are known to increase susceptibility to various diseases. However, the involvement of TAS2Rs in cancers has not been well understood. We conducted a pilot study by genotyping two TAS2R genes, TAS2R38 and TAS2R46, in Japanese cancer patients diagnosed with the following types of cancer: biliary tract cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer and gastric cancer. We selected the two TAS2Rs because they carry virtually non-functional alleles in human populations. We found that cancer risk is not associated with any TAS2R46 genotypes since there were no significant differences in genotype frequencies between cancer patients and controls. On the other hand, we confirmed that phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) non-tasters homozygous (AVI/AVI) for TAS2R38 were more frequent among Japanese cancer patients than those among controls as suggested in a previous study. The AVI/AVI genotype was therefore considered to increases cancer risk. In contrast, we also found that homozygous (PAV/PAV) PTC tasters are less frequent among cancer patients, suggesting that the PAV/PAV is a cancer resistant genotype that decreases cancer risk. Genotype frequencies for heterozygous AVI/PAV genotype were not significantly different between the two groups. It is suggested that the risk and resistance of cancers is antagonistically controlled by the two TAS2R38 alleles, PAV and AVI, rather than by the AVI allele alone.