The changes of protein kinases (PKs) in the nuclear matrix of HL-60 cells during the differentiation by retinoic acid (RA) were examined by in situ assay after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the nuclear matrix of HL-60, at least seven species of PKs (83, 63, 58, 46, 42, 38, and 31 kDa) were always detected. Among these PKs, 63 kDa PK was increased dramatically during differentiation by RA. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that two species of 63 kDa PKs (pI 5.0 and 5.4) were presented in the nuclear matrix and increased similarly during the differentiation. This increase of 63 kDa PKs may be related to the lobulation of the nucleus and the nuclear matrix accompanying the differentiation by RA.
The effect of a histidine-excess diet on the hepatic folylpol-yglutamate pattern in rat was studied. Rats were fed ad libitum 9.7% casein basal diets with 0.6% methionine (controls) or the basal diets with 3.5% histidine. The average daily weight gain and the food intake in histidine-supplemented rats (His-rats) did not significantly differ from controls. The liver weight in His-rats, however, was 50% higher than controls. Hepatic methyltetrahydropteroylpentaglutamate (CH3-H4PteGlu5), and tetrahydropteroylmonoglutamate concentrations in His-rats was 5.7- and 2-fold higher than controls, respectively. The tetrahyd-ropteroylpentaglutamate (H4PteGlu5) concentration in the His-rats was 74% lower than controls. Considering the homeostasis of folate cofactors in tissues, these results suggest that the hepatic regeneration systems for H4PteGlu5 in His-rats might be repressed and an apparent methylfolate trap might be attained rather on a pteroylpentaglutamate level than a monoglutamate level, and that the activity for catabolizing the excess histidine might exceed the regenerating activity for folate cofactors.
We examined the immunoregulating effect of 22-oxa-1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (22-oxa-1α, 25(OH)2D3), a synthetic analogue of vitamin D3 with an oxygen atom at C22 in the side chain skeleton, on spontaneously developing autoimmune disorders in MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr (MRL/l) mice. The oral administration of the compound significantly prolonged the average life span of the mice and showed a significant reduction in proteinuria. Histopathological investigations also revealed that pathological conditions such as renal arthritis, granuloma or arthritis of the knee joints were much lighter in the treated group than in the untreated group. Furthermore, the lymphocyte phenotypes in thymus, lymphnode, and spleen were partially normalized and became similar to those found in young control animals by the treatment with 22-oxa-1α, 25(OH)2D3. These results suggest that this compound inhibits the development of lupus nephritis in MRL/l mice and may be therapeutically effective on the mice.
We studied the cardiotoxicity in magnesium (Mg)-deficient male rats fed 50μg/g Cd for 45 consecutive days. Cd at a low con-centration (0.28ppm) in the heart induced cardiotoxic effects manifested by a decrease of the heart rate and weight and histopathological changes in the presence of Mg deficiency though Cd supplementation to a normal diet did not induce any cardiotoxic effect. Cardiac output (CO) did not increase in response to the decrease in the total peripheral resistance (TPR) in the Mg-deficient rats fed Cd, suggesting that supplementation of Cd to the Mg-deficient diet may lead to a decrease in the myocardial contractile function. However, supplementation of Cd to Mg-deficient diet also alleviated myocardial necrosis and Ca overload observed in the heart of Mg-deficient rats. The present data suggest that Cd ameliorates Ca overload in the heart of Mg-deficient rats but also may inhibit the release of Ca2+, which is a major determinant of the level of contractile force.
The effects of concurrent addition of methionine (Met) and glycine (Gly) to a 20% casein diet on serum lipoprotein profiles and fecal sterol excretion were studied in male Donryu rats with or without subcutaneous implantation of an ascites hepatoma line of AH 109A cells. The hepatoma-bearing rats fed on the 200 casein diet had a notable elevation in the very-low-density lipoprotein + low-density lipoprotein (VLDL+LDL)-cholesterol (Ch) level with a slight but significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-Ch level when compared to the hepatoma-free (normal) rats fed on the same diet. The dietary addition of 1.2% Met and 2.5% Gly in combination suppressed the hepatoma-induced elevation in the (VLDL+LDL)-Ch level with a prevention of the hepatoma-induced decrease in the HDL-Ch level. The addition of the two amino acids also lowered significantly the (VLDL+LDL)-Ch level without affecting the HDL-Ch level in tumor-free rats. Fecal excretion of both neutral and acidic sterols were reduced with growth of the hepatoma. The dietary addition of Met and Gly exerted no or little influence on neutral sterol excretion in both the tumor-free and -bearing states, but it enhanced acidic sterol excretion into feces in both states, especially in the hepatoma-bearing state at the last stage of feeding. These results suggest that the excretion and catabolism of Ch might be impaired in hepatoma-bearing rats with growth of the tumor, and that the supplemental Met and Gly in combination might enhance Ch catabolism by stimulating either synthesis or conjugation of bile acids, leading to a reduction of the (VLDL+LDL)-Ch level in the normal and hepatoma-bearing states.
Germinated rice, corn, mungbean, cowpea, and weaning foods prepared from their selected combinations were studied for their saccharide profile by TLC, total and soluble sugars content, and amylase activities in the flour and gruel samples. The enzyme system present in the germinated materials resulted in the partial digestion of carbohydrates into maltooligosaccharides, as shown by TLC pattern and soluble sugars determination of all materials germinated for 48, 72, and 96 h. Rice had the highest concentration of amylase, followed by cowpea, corn, and mungbean. The amylolytic activity produced during germination was retained in the flour despite drying and roasting processes involved. The processes of germination and gruel preparation of germinated materials contributed to the digestibility of weaning foods prepared from cereals and legumes.
Mineral and trace element content of the human transitory milk collected on days 6 to 9 postpartum in Tokyo was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Ten elements (Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Sr) were detected in ten-fold diluted milk sample with this method. With the stepwise multiple regression analysis, maternal and infants' biological attributes, such as weight, stature, sex, or age, were noted as factors contributing to the interindividual variation in Na, Mg, P, S, and Sr. Biological mechanism responsible for this selection cannot be found. Days postpartum for the milk collection was selected as a highly significant (p<0.001) variable with negative coefficient to explain milk S variation.
Half of the mice in both the monosodium-L-glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity and saline control groups were given BRL 26830A via a gastric tube at a daily dose of 5mg/kg for 2 weeks, and the other half given distilled water. BRL 26830A administration significantly increased guanosine-5'-diphosphate (GDP)-binding in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the resting metabolic rate (RMR), and significantly reduced re-troperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT) pads in both groups. It also markedly reduced body weight in MSG obese mice that had reduced BAT thermogenesis and decreased RMR. However, food intake was unchanged in both groups. Neither β1- nor β2-selective antagonists affected the increase of RMR induced by BRL 26830A, but a non-selective β-antagonist completely inhibited its increase. These results suggest that BRL 26830A, which is a new β-adrenoceptorr agonist, stimulates BAT thermogenesis, increases RMR, and reduces WAT, thus contributing to the mitigation of obesity.
Diet samples were collected by a duplicated portion study for an adult male in both Mito, Japan and Los Alamos, U.S.A. The ashed samples were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectro-metry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for 22 elements. The trace and ultratrace elements, Ba, Mo, Ni, Co, Cd, Cs, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U were determined by ICP-MS. The major and minor elements, Na, K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Al, Sr, and Cu were determined by ICP-AES. Accuracy and precision for some elements were examined by analyzing National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly National Bureau of Standards) Standard Reference Materials, 1577b Bovine Liver, and 1573 Tomato Leaves. Simultaneous multielement analyses of diet samples by using the two methods were found to be very useful.