The fatty acid composition of the intramuscular lipids of cattle, pigs and birds were determined relative to breed and feeding regime. The cattle included Yellow Cattle, Hereford and Japanese Black; pigs included Wild-boar, Touyuens and Yorkshires; the birds were Wild-birds, Jungle-fowl and broilers. The pen fed animals such as Japanese Black cattle and Yorkshire pigs had a higher amounts of oleic acid, palmitic acid and palmitoleic acid. On the other hand, wild or pasture fed animals such as the Herefords, Wild-boars and Touyuens had higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids such as α-linolenic acid, icosapentaenoic acid and ω-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Among Wild-fowl, open-yard fed birds or broilers, there was no difference in fatty acid composition. It is suggested the meat of pasture fed or wild fed animals such as Herefords, Yellow Cattle and Wild-boar is better for health than meat from pen fed animals.
The IgE-binding proteins in soybeans were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the fractionated soybean proteins probed with the sera of the patients with atopic dermatitis. About 20% of the patients examined were shown to have specific IgE antibodies to soybean proteins. At least 16 soybean proteins with molecular weights ranging from about 70, 000 to 14, 000 were recognized by the sera of the patients: 10 major IgE-binding components were found in the 7S-globulin fraction, and the others mainly in the 2S-globulin and whey fractions. The IgE antibodies of the patients bound most strongly and frequently to a unique protein with molecular weight of about 30, 000 in the 7S-globulin fraction, which appeared to be the major allergen in soybeans and was named as Gly m Bd 30 K. The proteins in the 11S-globulin fraction were scarcely recognized by the patients' sera and assumed to be less allergenic for the patients with atopic dermatitis.
Previous studies in the biotin-deficient rat have shown that brain biotin concentrations and the activity of biotin-dependent carboxyl-ases are relatively preserved in the face of biotin starvation and systemic biotin deficiency. These data suggested the existence of a concentration mechanism for biotin in brain, and the present studies were undertaken to further characterize brain biotin transport. We presently show that rat cerebrospinal fluid biotin concentrations are 2.5 times higher than serum concentrations, consistent with the existence of a concentrative mecha-nism for biotin. Further, we demonstrate uptake of 3H-biotin into rat brain from blood at physiologic biotin concentrations, using single pass clearance measurements of a brain uptake index. The calculated brain uptake indices for biotin, and the inhibition kinetics, are consistent with the possible existence of a low affinity mediated uptake mechanism. The results have implications for the pathophysiology of human biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency.
Total fat content and therefore total energy content and the content of essential fatty acids (EFAs) in milk are known to decline with prolonged breast feeding. In a placebo-controlled study a variety of evening primrose oil (Efamol) rich in linoleic and γ-linolenic acids, or a matching placebo were given to 39 women for a period of 8 months starting between the 2nd and 6th months of lactation. Total fat and EFA contents of the milk declined in the placebo group but rose in the primrose oil supplemented group. A surprisingly high proportion of the supple-mented dietary fatty acids could be accounted for by appearance in the milk. The milk composition can be readily manipulated by changing the fatty acid composition of the maternal diet.
To examine the effects of menhaden oil on the progressive glomerulosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and myocardial damage, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were fed Purina rat chow supplemented either with 6g % of menhaden oil or with 6g% of corn oil. They were sacrificed on the 12th and 18th months, and the kidneys, aorta, and heart were examined by light microscopy. At sacrifice, body weight, plasma creatinine, systolic blood pressure, 24h' urinary protein output, total plasma cholesterol and tri-glyceride, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and glomerulosclerosis index were measured. There was no significant difference between the experi-mental and control groups in the average body weight, plasma creatinine level, systolic blood pressure, total 24h urinary protein output, and glomerular filtration rate. Rats with menhaden oil had, however, statis-tically significant less aortic arteriosclerosis, myocardial damage, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and renal interstitial fibrosis than those with corn oil. The glomerular damage of the former as expressed by glomerulosclerosis index was numerically less than that of the latter. The data indicated that menhaden oil lessened the hypertensive damage to the renal and cardiovascular systems.
The effect of safflower phospholipid (SP) on plasma and liver lipids in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet was examined. Tri-glyceride mixture (SPO) of safflower oil and palm oil (8:2) containing almost comparable amounts of linoleic acid to safflower phospholipid was used as a control diet. Similarly, the effect of paste safflower phospholipid (PSP) which contains approximately 45% of neutral lipid was also compared to safflower oil (SO). Concentrations of total cholesterol in plasma and liver of rats fed the SP diet were markedly decreased in comparison with those of the other diets, but a slight reduction of total cholesterol in plasma and liver was observed in rats fed PSP diet. SP and PSP induced a reduction in the plasma level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as well as an increase in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The activity of plasma lecithincholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) was greatly increased in rats fed SP diet. These results suggest that the safflower phospholipids suppress the elevation of plasma and liver cholesterol and that this effect may depend on the phospholipid content in dietary lipid.
The macular mouse is an X-linked recessive inherited mutant and is considered to be a model for human congenital copper deficiency, Menkes' kinky hair disease. The activity of urate oxidase, which has been believed to be a copper enzyme, and copper content in the liver of the mutant mouse were determined. The oxidase activity was maintained at normal level even though there was very low level of copper present in the liver through days 7 to 14. Copper administration increased the copper content in the liver to the normal level, but did not affect the oxidase activity.
To clarify the effect of feeding 5% amaranth (Food Red No. 2, Am) alone or with 5% dietary fiber on jejunal mucosal integrity, change in jejunal sucrase activity before and after the feeding was compared between rats fed and fasted previously. Digestion-absorption capacity of the jejunum was also examined by perfusing 15 mmol/liter sucrose and 30 mmol/liter glycylglycine through the anesthetized rat je-junum after 14 days of feeding Am. Gobo dietary fiber (GDF) was prepared from the roots of edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.). At the end of 3 days' fasting, rats had 20% less body weight, 30% less mucosal protein and 50% less jejunal sucrase activity per unit length than those before fasting. Although rats fed Am showed severe diarrhea and growth retardation as observed in previous reports, initial sucrase level was not changed by feeding Am for 3 days even in the fasted rats. When sucrase activity on day 3 after feeding was compared among inter-groups, how-ever, rats fed Am showed sucrase activity lower than that of rats fed either the basal diet or the basal diet containing Am plus GDF only when they had been fasted previously. After 14 days of feeding, rats fed Am after 3 days' fasting regained sucrase activity up to that of rats fed the basal diet despite the remarkable growth retardation. Jejunal perfusion in situ showed that digestion-absorption capacity for sucrose and glycyl-glycine in rats fed 5% Am for 14 days was also the same as that in rats fed the basal diet. These results suggest that feeding Am can reduce neither jejunal sucrase nor digestion-absorption capacity of epithelial cells of the jejunum, but retards the regain of the lowered sucrase level at earlier stage of feeding when rats have been fasted before the feeding, and that concurrent feeding of GDF promotes catch-up of the sucrase level lowered by fasting.
Methyl linoleate hydroperoxides (MLHPO), a model for lipid hydroperoxides, decreased fungicidal activity of human polymor-phonuclear leukocytes (PMN) for fungi of Candida albicans. When PMN was cultured with MLHPO, phagocytosis to fungi was depressed. Degree of the depression was dependent on the concentration of MLHPO and the treatment time with MLHPO. These findings indicate that phagocytic activity of human PMN can be depressed by lipid hydroperoxides.