Chronic alcohol consumption leads to malnutrition and to the deficiency of many vitamins. One of the most important is folate deficiency. Folate deficiency disrupts the process of hematopoiesis, which can be evaluated by the changes of red cell indices. The aim of this study was to determine the hematological disturbances by the measurement of red blood cell indices in a Polish population of chronic alcoholics according to folate status. We studied 80 consecutive chronic alcoholic men and 30 healthy controls. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the folate concentration. The serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration and the blood count were determined. We have shown that the serum folate concentration was decreased in 40% of alcoholics, but there was no folate deficiency and the level of vitamin B12 was normal. There was no correlation between folate, vitamin B12 and hematological indices. We have observed that most hematological parameters (Hb, RBCs, and Hct) in alcoholics were decreased and only two of them (MCV and MCHC) were increased in comparison with the controls. We observed no significant correlation between the RBCs indices and the weekly alcohol intake, but the correlation between RBCs, Hb, Hct and the duration of dependence have been shown. We concluded that, there is no folate deficiency in the Polish alcoholic population but the abusers with low folate levels may already have some RBCs indices affected. It means that the Polish alcoholic population consumes a sufficient amount of vitamins, which prevents the occurrence of hematological disturbances.
The contents of six vitamin B6 forms, pyridoxine-β-glucoside, and 4-pyridoxic acid in mature milk of 20 Japanese lactating women consuming ordinary Japanese foods were determined by a 4-pyridoxolactone-conversion HPLC method. These compounds were determined with the average recovery rate of 83.9% or more. The average total content of vitamin B6 forms was 1.01±0.32 (μmol/L). Pyridoxal and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate were found in all of the samples, and their average contents were 0.71±0.28 (μmol/L) and 0.16±0.07 (μmol/L), respectively. Pyridoxamine, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate, pyridoxine 5'-phosphate, and pyridoxine-β-glucoside were found in 15, 14, 13, 9, and 7 samples, respectively. The presence of pyridoxine 5'-phosphate was for the first time found in human milk. A method for the determination of 4-pyridoxic acid, which is the excretion form of vitamin B6, was modified to quantitate it by isocratic HPLC. 4-Pyridoxic acid was found in all samples, and its average content was 0.094±0.040 (μmol/L), which was only 12% of its content in cow (Holstein) milk. The total content of vitamin B6 forms, and predominant presence of pyridoxal among other vitamin B6 forms in the Japanese women's milk samples shared similar characteristics with American women’s milk samples.
One of the critical factors that determines individual differences in dietary behavior and nutritional status is the sensory-affecting quality of food, in particular its taste. Variation of one bitter taste receptor gene, TAS2R38, which is associated with the differential sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), has been demonstrated to affect the dietary intake pattern. A case study was performed to examine the association of the TAS2R38 genotypes/haplotypes with the body size (height, weight and BMI) and with the food and nutrient intake. Eighty-four college students, all females, with an age range of 18-21 y were recruited from the University of Shizuoka. The genotypes of two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in TAS2R38 (A49P and I296V) were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. The height, weight and body mass index (BMI), and (in a subgroup of 47 subjects) food and nutrition intake estimated from 3 d of food recording, were compared between homozygotes for the PTC/PROP-nontaster haplotype (AI haplotype) and carriers with the PTC/PROP-taster haplotype (PV haplotype). The results show that the homozygotes with AI haplotype were taller and heavier than the carriers of PV haplotype, while BMI values were similar between them. The former group also had higher energy and carbohydrate intakes than the latter group. Neither vegetable nor dairy product intake was different between the homozygotes with AI haplotype and the carriers of PV haplotype. In conclusion, the PTC/PROP-nontaster TAS2R38 genotype/haplotype was associated with height and weight but not with BMI, which may in turn have influenced the energy and carbohydrate intakes.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the usual intake distribution of calcium and vitamin B1 of fifth-grade children based on a 3-d dietary survey and to assess nutrient intake using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs 2010). A cross-sectional study was undertaken from October 2007 to February 2008 in schools located in Tokyo and Okayama, Japan. A total of 94 fifth-grade children attending 5 elementary schools participated in the study. The weighed plate waste method and observation were used to collect data on the school lunches and dietary records by children, accompanied by photographs used to collect data on meals at home. The study lasted 3 d, 2 non-consecutive days with school lunches and 1 d without. The estimated proportion of subjects below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for calcium intake with milk in the school lunch decreased by 40% compared to the calcium intake without milk in the school lunch. Vitamin B1 intake from less than 0.45 mg/1,000 kcal fortified rice was estimated to be 0%. The intake distribution of calcium has increased by 150 mg by taking milk and the intake distribution of vitamin B1 has increased 0.20 mg by taking fortified rice in the school lunch. Calcium and vitamin B1 intake in the school lunch has changed the distribution of calcium and vitamin B1 intake upward, and decreased the number of estimated subjects that were below EAR. However, the distribution was not shifted across the board and the shape of the distribution has changed.
Low calcium (Ca) intake is the one of risk factors for both bone loss and medial elastocalcinosis in an estrogen deficiency state. To examine the effect of different amounts of Ca intake on the relationship between bone mass alteration and medial elastocalcinosis, 6-wk-old female SD rats were randomized into ovariectomized (OVX) control or OVX treated with vitamin D3 plus nicotine injection (VDN) groups. The OVX treated with VDN group was then divided into 5 groups depending on the different Ca content in their diet, 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.6%, 1.2%, and 2.4% Ca intakes. After 8 wk of experimentation, the low Ca intake groups of 0.01% and 0.1% showed a low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone properties significantly different from those of the other groups, whereas the high Ca intake groups of 1.2% and 2.4% showed no difference compared with the OVX control. Only in the 0.01% Ca intake group, a significantly higher Ca content in the thoracic artery was found compared with that of the OVX control. Arterial tissues of the 0.01% Ca intake group showed an increase of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) activity, a marker of bone mineralization, associated with arterial Ca content. However, the high Ca intake did not affect arterial Ca content nor arterial BAP activity. These results suggested that a low Ca intake during periods of rapid bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency might be one possible cause for the complication of both bone loss and medial elastocalcinosis.
From studies in mice, we have reported that Coleus forskohlii extract (CFE), a popular herbal weight-loss ingredient, markedly induced hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP), and interacted with co-administered drugs. This study was designed to examine how the induction of drug metabolizing enzymes by CFE was influenced by different levels of macronutrients in the diet. Mice were fed a non-purified diet or semi-purified diet with and without CFE (0.3-0.5%) for 14-18 d, and changes in the ratio of liver weight to body weight, an indicator of hepatic CYP induction, and hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes were analyzed. The ratio of liver weight to body weight, content and activities of CYPs, and activity of glutathione S-transferase were higher in a semi-purified standard diet (AIN93G formula) group than in high sucrose (62.9%) and high fat (29.9%) diet groups. Different levels of protein (7%, 20%, and 33%) in the diets did not influence CFE-induced CYP induction or increase the ratio of liver weight to body weight. The effect of CFE on the ratio of liver weight to body weight was higher with a semi-purified diet than with a non-purified diet, and was similar between dietary administration and intragastric gavage when the CFE dose and the diet were the same. There was a positive correlation between CFE-induced CYP induction and the content of starch in the diets, suggesting that dietary starch potentiates CFE-induced CYP induction in mice. The mechanism of enhanced CYP induction remains unclear.
The present study was conducted to identify reliable gene biomarkers for the adverse effects of excessive leucine (Leu) in Sprague-Dawley rats by DNA microarray. It has long been known that the adverse effects of excessive amino acid intake depend on dietary protein levels. Male rats were divided into 12 groups (n=6) and fed for 1 wk a diet containing low (6%), moderate (12%) or high (40%) protein. Different levels of Leu (0, 2, 4, and 8%) were added to the diets. Consumption of diets containing more than 4% Leu in 6% protein resulted in growth retardation and reduced liver weight, whereas the administration of the same dose of Leu with 12% or 40% protein did not affect them. By a process of systematic data extraction, 6 candidate gene markers were identified. The liver gene expression data obtained from another experiment with 0, 2, 3, 4, and 8% Leu in a low-protein diet was used to examine the validity of these biomarker candidates with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. All of AUC values of the biomarker candidates were more than 0.700, suggesting the effectiveness of the marker candidates as the indices of Leu excess. The cut-off value for the ROC curve of the gene-marker panel, which was obtained by multiple regression analysis of gene markers, indicated that Leu levels higher than 3% have adverse effects. In conclusion, the gene-marker panel suggested that for male rats dietary Leu supplementation of 2% is the NOAEL dose in low-protein (6%) diets.
We investigated the effects of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on the blood glucose levels of mice using an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. The intragastric administration of 25 mg/kg body weight AITC reduced the increase in blood glucose level after 2 g/kg body weight glucose was given intraperitoneally, compared with that of control mice. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for the reduction, respiratory gas analysis employing 13C-labeled glucose was performed. The intragastrically administering AITC increased 13CO2 emission, compared to vehicle, after intraperitoneal administration of 13C-labeled glucose. This indicated that AITC increased the utilization of exogenously administered glucose, which was excessive glucose in the blood. To examine whether transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediated this reduction in the blood glucose levels, we used TRPA1 and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. Intragastrically administering AITC reduced the increase in the blood glucose level in TRPA1 KO mice but not in TRPV1 KO mice. These findings suggest that dietary AITC might reduce the increases in blood glucose levels by increasing the utilization of excessive glucose in the blood by activating TRPV1.
Vitamin E, a critical fat-soluble vitamin antioxidant, is expressed on cell membranes and prevents propagation of lipid peroxidation. α-Tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) is a cytosolic protein located in the hepatocytes that acts as the principal regulator of the circulating α-tocopherol levels. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, caused by insulin resistance. Lipid peroxidation promotes the clinical progression and development of complications in type 2 diabetes. Results of animal and human experiments on the vitamin E status in diabetes are conflicting. The present study was conducted with the objective of investigating the vitamin E status and α-TTP expression in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes. In diabetic GK rats, increases of the α-tocopherol levels in the plasma and liver were observed as compared with the levels in the controls. No alternation in the CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) or Mn-SOD gene expression was found in the liver of GK rats as compared with that in the controls. The GK rats showed an increase of the hepatic expression of the α-TTP gene as compared with the level in the controls. It can be suggested that the increased hepatic α-TTP gene expression levels may influence plasma α-tocopherol levels in the diabetic animals. Hence, investigation of the regulatory factors of α-TTP expression may provide important clues to highlighting the antioxidant mechanisms of vitamin E.
In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (p<0.0001) of Se uptake were observed in fruiting bodies of all mushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations.
Male Wistar rats were fed four diets composed of purified 20% vitamin-free casein diet with (+) or without (−) vitamin B6 (7.0 mg of pyridoxine HCl/kg of diet) and with (+) or without (−) branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) of valine, leucine, and isoleucine (4.75%): B6(+)BCAA(−); B6(+)BCAA(+); B6(−)BCAA(−); and B6(−)BCAA(+) for 21 d. Among rats fed the B6(−)BCAA(+) diet, about a half showed lipid deposition in the liver. On the other hand, serum triacylglycerol levels in the B6(−)BCAA(+) group tended to be decreased. Hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels tended to increase in the B6(−)BCAA(+) group compared with the other three groups. Serum apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein E (apo E) levels in the B6(−)BCAA(+) group were the lowest among the three groups. In contrast, hepatic apo E levels in the B6(−)BCAA(+) group were the highest among the three groups. High-performance liquid chromatography of pooled serum of rats with lipid deposits revealed that triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were decreased compared with other diet groups. These results strongly suggest that one of the mechanisms of lipid deposition in rats fed a B6(−)BCAA(+) diet is due to impaired secretion of VLDL.