Among many library and archives issues, book conservation is one of the fields where most energetic research efforts have been made over the decades. Nevertheless there remain still several essential problems unanswered. This paper questions general understanding of causes of paper deterioration and emphasizes further need for scientific research.
Threats to the environment are a common concern shared by developing and industrialized countries. All countries should take effective action to protect and enhance the environment in accordance with their responsibilities and respective capacities.
Based on the five year experience as a Director of UNIDO, the author stresses the importance of collaboration and cooperation between Scientists and Industrialists for Ecologically Sustainable Industrial Development.
A consensus has emerged in the world's scientific community, that the damage afflicted on the environment by current pattern of energy production and use is the most urgent issue facing today's energy decision makers. A way to alleviate these problems would be through increasing energy efficiency. New technologies, energy efficient technologies, promotion, transfer, and data banking of those technologies, increase of developing countries awareness are described as major tools for attaining Agenda 21.
It is imoperative to develop simple and practical methodologies in assessing the impact of technology and in evaluation technology development, transfer and application, where all parameters are taken into consideration, even those of social nature. These assessments are important in transferring and adopting the experience and technologies of industrialized countries to developing countries.
The acid in paper of old books published from l886 to 1985 were determined with pH measurements using JIS and 0.1M KCl methods, and the non-aqueous solvent extraction of the acid with a liquid ion-exchanger such as Primene JMT - ethanol mixed solvent.
The percent extraction of acid in the same paper samples is in the following order
The result proved that one cannot completely extract all the acid in the paper sample with water. The quantitative extraction of hydrogen ions in papers can be possibly extracted with a non-aqueous solvent containing an ion-exchanger such as Primene JM-T in ethanol. We know that old papers are being destroyed by the acid which is produced in the paper due to the hydrolysis of the sizing materials such as aluminum sulfate on the pulp of wooden materials.
Measurement and analysis of fluctuations of structural objects are useful for monitoring the condition of these structures. In this paper, we propose a laser beam technique for studying these fluctuations, and report some results of our investigations, including an observation of forced vibration of a refrigerator, rotational frequency of an electric motor, and the appearance of a fluctuation in rotational speed due to fatigue. This technique has also been applied to real structural objects, a resonance of a automobile due to rotation of the engine, and intrinsic vibrations of buildings. Standard techniques used in fluctuation analysis are compared in a detection of an abnormal state of an electric motor. Data processing techniques of higher-orders are tested. Fluctuation analysis should be an important objective of analytical chemistry. The results obtained with this laser beam technique should form a useful collection of data regarding fluctuation analysis of various objects.
The issue of safety has been widely studied in numerous fields, such as occupational safety, traffic safety, environmental problems, chemical safety, drug safety, and so on. It is therefore necessary to retrieve data from a large number of databases in these fields in order to collect safety information in interdisciplinary fields. However, it is difficult to comprehensively gather safety information because of difference between keyword system maintained by each database.
The Gateway thesaurus system for safety research has been under developing, in order to innovationally improve the efficiency of retrieval from a number of online databases with respect to safety issues. The system is constructed by two components, I.e. the knowledge base and the user interface. This paper describes the design concepts and outline of these systems.
We are investigating telecommunications network for environmental specialists belong to government and local governments. This network is constructed in Nifty-Serve that is one of the major telecommunication networks in Japan. Now, more than forty local governments join in. We are exchanging environmental information, presenting report, collecting freewares and public domain data in this network.
The Purpose of making a chemical substance information access system is handling and controlling toxic chemicals. The system hard ware consists of host computer (IBM PC/AT compatible machine), terminal computers, modems and some peripherals. Information of chemicals are received through the three processes. The first is user's access to the host computer and checking on the table for searching. The second is access of the host computer to data bases and automatic down loading. The third is editing files down loaded and making reports to user. The users supported by this system are now only Kawasaki City officials, but it may be possible for the citizens in Kawasaki City and other peoples to use it in the future.
The river stems from a mountain, runs through the land and flows in the sea. She covers the area of the mountain side, that of the agricultural field and that of the city which is crowded by the people. The function is important for the sustenance of the good life of people of good quality, because the river water in the country side area works as the source of the ground water which is used in the daily life, and works in the agricultural field as that of the irrigation water for the rice and vegetables. Moreover, in the modern days, the river has a key function in the city life as the source of tap water
Accordingly, the data on the quality of the river water are the controls of great importance for the human activities of modern days.
How we can meet this condition of the river? We should recognize the river as a system of information, where creation of information (data production), data accumlation, then networking of those data must be formulated as a system. For data creation, experimental science must work. For systematization of the data, information scientists should join and work.
Top level work in the experimental science is needed for data creation. Patient and enormous efforts are also necessary for accumlation of the data. This report will call the attention of the information scientists for the fact that the subject of the experimental science needs the eyes of information scientists.
Human lives of modern time hold the danger of having hazardous chemical substances in water which needs chronological monitoring. But, first of all, the methods of measurement of those substances with the highest sensitivity and accuracy must be invented, and then this method must be applied in reality. This paper will report the results of the invention of the method and application of the said method for six monitoring sites of the river.
As a matter of the future problem, the on-line base data access and the networking of those monitoring stations must be materialized, although some experimental stations are already being built in this country. This paper will be presented as an example which refers to the importance of the eyes to see the river as an information system which bridges multiphases of the modern lives.