The period while Japan was occupied was a turning point for Japanese journalism. After defeat of Japan, the problem what journalism in Japan should be was often duscussed, and some reform of newspapers were made from inside and outside. It can be thought that the birth of Shinko-shi(new newspapers) was one of the reform from outside. They were grass-rooted journalism activities because new publishers were willing to express their opinions. One of the reasons why new newspapers were published was political inducement by GHQ. GHQ expressed the memorandum of"Elimination of Newspaper and Publishers' Associations Control over Distribution of paper"on 26th October 1945, and ordered that the Japanese government would create a paper rationing organization. This new organization distributed paper to new newspapers prior to established papers. As a example of this movement, this article discuss Chukyo Shimbun Which was established in Nagoya, Aichi. It has cooperation relationship to Asahi Shimbun. The aim of this article is to explain what was cooperation relationship between Chukyo and Asahi, and discuss its conflicts. K.Kato, Dietman belonging to Japan Socialist Party, was rationed paper. Y.Chiba, ex-editor of Asahi, became president of Chukyo. And it was published on 1st August 1946. It aimed to realize quality paper. When it was published, Asahi gave it various supports such as offering of capital. Then, why Asahi assisted Chukyo? Above mentioned, those days, established papers such as Asahi was refused incresed paper rations by Paper Rationing Comittee. Therefore, they tried to create new newspapers in various places all over the Japan. For example, Asahi supported new newspapers in Kyushu and Kansai as well as Nagoya. In Nagoya, six new newspapers including Chukyo were published after war, and five of the six had cooperation relationship to established papers of Asahi, Mainichi, Chubu Nippon. Chukyo had about 80,000 circulation. However, it didn't last as other new newspapers. Adjustment of newspaper rationing (Shimbun Kodoku Chosei) made its management worse. And as paper production got higher, established papers increased their circuration or published evening editions. What was more important, Asahi re-started to print a newspaper in Nagoya on 1st February 1950, Which was long-cherished desire of Asahi. Chukyo was urged to repay of the money. After this, Chukyo made various efforts for reconstruction for more than a year. But finally, Chukyo stopped printing newspaper on 5th May 1951. Like this, many other new newspapers, except sports newspapers and so on, have disappeared. But many of new newspapers had unique content which had not seen in established papers. Therefore, it is useful to evaluate new newspapers for approaching Japanese journalism.
With the progress of informationization in society, the electronic media is increasingly closer related to social situations. The consequences of this trend are very important for our daily life. However, the impact of electronic media in relation to social situations has not often been addressed in communication research. In this article, by focusing on the relationship between"media"and"situations", we aim to study the changes in individuals that are caused by the media. These changes are mediated by the social situations. Considering the family as the typical example of the social setting, we first reviewed past studies on TV use to see how the electronic media were associated with families. We found that TV is often used to maintain the social realities of families. Second, defining construction of"situations"as one characteristic of the electronic media, we described the process in which media bring about the social change by making the individual's social reality relative. Finally, the research data on the relation young people in Japan have with the"multi-media age "was fitted against the argument above. The major findings of this study are as follows. (1) Nowadays in the studies of TV viewing behavior, more attention is paid to the families as audiences. The reason of this increasing attention to families rise in the recognition of the importance of TV for maintaining the social realities of the families. (2) In modern society, families are changing remarkably. TV has on the one hand certainly contributed to family unity, but, on the other hand, it made their social reality relative. However, TV did not disorganize family reality completely. (3) Young people now experience multiple situations by associating different kinds of electronic media with their daily life. Out of their answers, we constituted a variable of the multiplicity and tested its association with their view on interpersonal communications. We found that people who are used to multiple situations tend to communicate superficially with others, rather than not communicate at all. The multiple situations caused by the electronic media are associated to the multiple realities in the communication with others.
Taking into account that advertising is thought to be a process which can be formularized like"advertisers advertise'what they(their brands)ate...'to their recipients, "conventional studies of advertising, for the most part, have been concentrated on analysis of this blank space of'what....'. Of cource, there are many arguments that have been accumulated as"studies of advertising effects, "nevertheless many of them tend to be"content → response analysis, "similar to the"stimulus-response model."In other words, they were studies of advertising in the relationship between "advertiser → recipient"and thus it seems that they lack in a viewpoint of advertising in terms of the interactive"advertiser ↔ recipient"relationship, in which function of recipients'interpretation of meaning of advertisements and their giving meaning to them should be analysed. This paper is to concentrate on methodological examination in an effort to analyse advertising in such the interactive situation. In examination, an approach of this paper is to search for a new extention of studies of advertising by taking advantage of"interpretative paradigms"as it is called in sociology. Such a viewpoint to look at social events that"interactive process as a interpretative process, "which is one of the characteristics of interpretative paradigms, is likely to give many suggestions to studies of advertising. This paper selects Goffman's"Frame Analysis, "in paticular, out of"interpretative paradigms, "mainly because"Frame Analysis"aims to integrate diverse schools of interpretative paradigms and various arguments in social science in the past. This is also partly because, it is thought, Goffman's consistent"situational perspective"and resulting various concepts will be effective in analysing and describing the interaction between"advertisers and recipients"and the mechanism of construction of interaction in that situation. How Goffman and his"Frame Analysis"should be understood and what suggestions should be extracted from it for studies of advertising are the main argument of the first half of this paper. And, in the second half of this paper, how implication in methodology and terminology obtained from the"Frame Analysis"examination should be applied to actual advertising analysis is discussed by taking examples from advertising in the present society of Japan. The paper asserts that, in the present society of Japan, not only advertisements on mass media are the subject of studies of advertising, but also various demeanour of advertisers from the much wider perspective, in addition to sophisticated advertising expression on mass media, has to be analysed. Conversely speaking, this manifests the situation in which copresence of advertisers and recipients is expanding acceleratively on a qualitative and quantitative basis, and the situation in which a number of events occur that the conventional definitions of advertising can't explain. In the end, this paper will suggest that Goffman's"situational perspective"is valid in dealing with such problems as the interactive relationship between advertisers and recipients ubquitous in society by dint of various advertising vehicles not limited to mass media, diversification and multiplity of reality which are constructed by this advertiser-recipient interaction, and how the recipient self should be.
In this article, in order to understand"informationalization in the home, "it is asserted that the field of home informatics should be established and the phenomena of informationalization in the home should be conceptually dealt with in the course of changes of lifestyles or structures of life. The field of home informatics has to be established as an outcome of efforts to integrate studies in the field of media and information use with various studies on lives by many approaches like sociology and"life study"that is unique in Japan. Studies on media and information use have not been well related with studies on lives of people in Japan. In fact, in the studies on mass media, lives are often treated as such very abstract concepts as environments or life consciousness. On the other hand, in the studies on lives in Japan, the social phases of urbanization and consumption-oriented society are emphasized and the phenomenon of informationalization or media use is mostly neglected. Many recent phenomena in the media or information-related activities of people in the daily lives are well understood in the field of home informatics. For example, in the course of changes in the lives of the Japanese in recent years, posession of many information media in their homes is regarded as another example of increasing goods in their households. Personal possession of media is increasing as a result of such trend. Networking activities could also be seen in the consideration of social relations in the lives of people. Japanese lifestyles are going to the stage where people use much more media and information than before. Some parts of their life structures should be re-categorized into information-oriented parts and we should study these parts as established categories of home informatics.