The purpose of this article is to make the history of relationship the category of "Advertising Creator" with the ambiguous ability such as "Creativity" clear. The methodology of this article is discourse analysis in 1920's. First, "Shougyou-Bijyutsuka" was the origin of the "Advertising Creator", and that wasn't ambiguous category at all. Second, "Creativity" had negative meanings when "Advertising Creator" defined by distinguishing from the "Artist". Third, the positive of the "Advertising Creator" and the negative of the "Creativity" are constructed by the discourse network Psychology and Marxism. By them, this article submitted the perspective as "Formalist" for the "Advertising Creator".
Japanese FM radio is now considered as a music media which is distinct from other broadcast media such as AM radio. However, FM radio was originally planned as an educational media. Many political and cultural factors influenced the process of the formation of FM radio as a music media. During this process, sound, not music, was an essential factor. This article discusses the functions given to FM radio with a historical description on how the main role of FM radio changed from educational broadcasting, during the end of the 1950s when its experimental broadcasting started, to music broadcasting in the early 1970s when its formal broadcasting began.
This paper attempts to understand risk, namely that of BSE in Japan from morning news programs. We analyzed broadcast from January and February 2006 that examined BSE and the ensuing ban on import of U.S. beef to Japan according to Membership Categorization Analysis. We found that each actor drew its own borders, distinguishing between "Japanese" and "Americans, " so as to make the differentiating between the observable and the accountable. We also found that actors and their actions in media coverage are coherent and consistent according to the relevancy of the situation, thus giving perspectives to the discourse.