Research on media literacy has made great strides in recent years. The various meanings of"media, "however, remain unclear. In this regard, the historical meaning of literature and what we speak of as"literacy"holds particular relevance, though most research has not made mention of the connection. Indeed, this study pertaining to the realization of<audience-subjectivity>is only a beginning. Chapter I : For almost forty years, I have read and reread Kinoshita Junji's drama A Japanese Called Otto and I have seen numerous performances of it on the stage. I have given much thought to the mutual relationship between art and the reality of life, creation and its enjoyment. Chapter II : For some thirty years, I have searched for a dialogue(one to one)within the genre of mass communications. Recently, I was inspired by a lecture given by Professor Norma Field of the University of Chicago. Professor Field's work made me aware that through the study of liberal arts the realization of<audience-subjectivity>has the possibility to develop and grow.
There is criticism of newspapers by readers concerning the invasion of privacy, the absence of morals in newspaper coverage, or subscription sales by irregular methods. Citizens and lawyers are demanding the creation of a Press Ombudsman or a Press Council. It is necessary to make newspaper proprietors convert from the logic of capitalism to newspaper ethics. In this paper, I have examined the process of the formation of journalistic ethics in Japan.
NHK's Broadcasting Standard and that of the National Association of Commercial Broadcasters are getting out of date. The ethical standards are not those of the individual journalists but of the industry. Their thrust is to guard the status quo rather than to achieve ethical goals. The broadcasting program commissions of each station haven't been very effective because they have functioned de facto in the arms of the companies. The commissions that oversee the entire industry were created at the suggestion of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications when something unethical occurred. The broadcasters in the workplace do not attend much to either the standards or the commissions ; rather, they employ common sense if they are experienced, or, if not, have no resource to deal with ethical issues. Broadcasters should insure that their ethical standards are more practical further, they should be accountable to citizens and their criticism.
This article particularly focuses on the aspect of political communication in balanced and unbalanced situations between a politician and a journalist in interpersonal communication settings. Many Japanese political communication studies have approached this topic from the angle of agenda-setting, using statistical and descriptive explanation to describe what happens between the media and politics. The article starts with a review of the literature regarding current research trends followed by thoughts on power, media and the public. Finally, the researcher utilizes Fritz Heider's balanced theory to analyze interpersonal relationships between politicians and journalists.
In the search for possibilities of substantial criticism of the Mass Media, the author points to some basic social changes as the bases for the advancement in media literacy of the Japanese public, namely, diffusion of public education, and growth and diversification of information by mass media. But, in his view, it is not possible for the masses to make substantial criticism of the mass media because of the lack of technical knowledge about the media themselves and the background of their behaviour. The author hopes that the masses would play the role of showing their"desire"and those who are in charge of media studies should build the masses'"desire"into positive"opinion", as Auguste Comte suggested in one of his early essays.
The determinant factors in cable TV subscription were studied, paying attention to the shift process to cable TV. Previous research in the U.S.was investigated first and problems in the conventional method were arranged, and a new method of solving the conventional problems was devised. Although regression analysis or discriminant analysis was applied conventionally, the new method combines factor analysis and discriminant analysis. Next, the new method was applied to the data obtained by a poll survey in a metropolitan cable-TV area in this study, and extraction of determinant factors was attempted. Consequently, arrival at the investigation stage about subscription in a household largely depends on the householder's positiveness, and two determinant factors concerning householder's broadcast program interest, one factor about householder's feeling of subscription fee, and one factor about TV watch tendency were extracted. Furthermore, progress from investigation stage to subscription largely depends on the family's agreement. New analysis was also applied to data of another area, and the flexibility of the method was checked.
As part of a larger project on cross-media comparison of news reporting, the present study examined the extent of consonance/differentiation of news items covered by 14 early and late evening newscasts on six(one public and five commercial)television networks and three national newspapers. Based on 322 stories recorded for the five-day period, the percentage of duplicated items as well as correlations from 2×2 contingency tables were calculated for each pair of 17 outlets to show that, relative to television, newspapers had much higher within-media agreement in selection of news stories. As for television newscasts, four public and ten commercial programs were clearly differentiated and for the latter, more differentiation was observed for the programs of different stations than for the programs in different time slots, indicating that news judgments were not much shared by commercial networks.
The first purpose of this paper is to compare Karl Deutsch's theory about nation-building with Benedict Anderson's, and discuss the two aspects of nation-building. In one aspect, which Deutsch emphasizes, the members of the nation learn to understand each other. In the other aspect, which Anderson emphasizes, they learn to imagine the members of the nation who can understand each other. The second purpose is to discuss the importance of Deutsch's and Anderson's theories in the global age. In this age, it is necessary to analyze three dimensions, global, national, and local. Although their theories mainly focus on the national dimension, they also have global and local perspectives.
Masakazu Nakai has been said to be a pioneer in the theory and practice of interactive communication in Japan. This article points out that, in Nakai's thought, there are two aspects in the relations of the intellectuals and the masses. One aspect he emphasized is the communicative equality of the intellectuals and the masses. The other aspect is the communicative priority of the intellectuals over the masses. This article remarks on his concept of 'Spannung'(tension). This concept is related to his dialectics. In the ordinary context, his dialectics transformed senders or speakers of communication and corresponded to'Mittel'. On the other hand, in the case of the dialectics of 'Spannung', senders of communication didn't have to transform, so 'Spannung'corresponded to'Medium'. In conclusion, Nakai equated'Mittel'with'Medium'.
In this article, I apply discursive psychology developed at Loughborough University(UK)to the study of Japanese monarchism. I analyse newspaper articles paying particular attention to the terminologies which appeared both in mainstream and communist press, immediately after Emperor Hirohito's death in 1989. Through my analysis, it is highlighted that exclusive and inclusive terminologies of Emperor's death were orchestrated, constructing the post-war Emperorship. Although the pro-monarchy papers framed Hirohito's death as an official national event with an exclusive term('hogyo'discourse)on their front pages, in the later pages, inclusive terms('non-hogyo'discourse)emphasized the humanity of the deceased Emperor.