The development of the study of the media in politics is rather a recent phenomenon in political science, although the implications of the media for democracy were noted by J.Bryce and W.Lippmann in the early 1920s. The fact still remains, however, that studies in the media in politics have been mostly with a focus on the electoral process. In this regard, the study of the condition of the media in the community process is badly needed in Japan, where the local media are generally very weak. The revitalization of the political functions of the media in the community is more essential today in the face of the fast developing teledemocracy.
Local newspapers have pretty big influense on local government. Through this report I would like to present some analysis on the influenses of the Hokkaido Shimbun's daily coverage, especially the intensive campaign against "the perks heaven" of the Hokkaido prefectural government officials who had misappropriated huge ammount of tax payers' money. I intend to review desirable relations between the local government and newspapers, also urge decentralization of power through our campaign.
The increased demand by viewers for news reporting led to the advent of "the age of reporting" in the TV world. News programs became the main arena in the ratings competition, and the networks all competed in improving and expanding their news-reporting apparatuses in the attempt to strengthen their news programs. At the same time, the advent of "the regional age" led to an increased need for local news reporting by regional TV stations, especially of political news directly related to the daily lives of local citizens. A tendency can also be observed for the success of local news programs to raise the overall ratings of the station. However, size limitations on news-reporting staff have meant that most local stations are faced with the dilemma of being unable to carry out adequate news-reporting activities.
"Part I: Pursuit of Freedom and Equality" discusses the relationship between communication study and gender study. Suggestions from post-colonial study are mentioned. "Part II: Communication as the Process of Control" discusses the reproduction of gender through personal communication and mass communication. "Part III: Communication as the Process of Change" discusses the gender change through personal communication and mass communication. Reviewing achievements done in Japan, this article tries to find theoretical relationship between communication and gender.
The NGO conference differed from most world meetings in that it was characterized by unity, despite the ideological and religious differences of the delegates. While official delegates to the meeting at Beijing often represented the privileged and stood up for national interests, the NGO conference delegates at Huailou reached out to each ohter as world citizens. However, coverage of the NGO meetings did not capture the problem-solving thrust of the gathering. The mass media approach international meetings with a frame that does no fit this particular gathering; they need frames appropriate for this different kind of gathering.
In this article, I taced the process of encounter between cultural studies and feminism in CCCS. As Stuart Hall mentioned in his article, the feminist intervention was a radical interruption for cultural studies. However, in struggling with such an interruption, cultural studies have reflectively continued its theorizing task, obtained theoretical-practical richness and critically grasped the conditions of contemporary societies. Now, in the process of 'transnationalization' and 'institutionalization', cultural studies face the moment of profound denger. Reconsidering the significance of 'gender' for cultural studies in such a conditon will be of great help for trying to keep on the critical projects which aim at the cultural critique of status-quo.
Andrea Dworkin and Catharine MacKinnon have had great influence on advancement of the theory that sexually explicit expression, or pornography, should be regulated because it differentially harms women. Especially, the Canadian Supreme Court adopted the Dworkin-MacKinnon theory. It decided that obcenity statute in the Criminal Code of Canada did not violate Canadian constitutional free expression guarantee because the portrayal of persons being subjected to degrading or dehumanizing sexual treatment resulted in harm, particularly to women. On the other hand, Anti-censorship Feminist objected that free expression would contributed to promotion of women's equality in society, and restrictions on sexually explicit expression would do more harm than good. I consider these controversies.
This study explores the use of sources and channels in network evening news programs in Japan. For the purpose of research, a content analysis was conducted using videotaped reports from evening news programs of NHK and 4 major commercial networks. The unit of analysis was the televised news sourse, defined as "any individual, group, or organization attributed by journalists as a source of information or opinion". In accordance with the findings of previous studies, this study found that governmental sources dominate news sources and that more news originating from routine channels are used in both NHK and commercial TV networks. There were, however, significant differences in sourcing patterns between NHK and commercial broadcasters.
The purpose of this paper is to explicate the activities that audience actually achieve in watching TV. In so doing, I would like to offer a new perspective for the study of mass communications. First, I reconsider the "text-reader" framework by which interpretive activities of audience have been studied. Second, by reference to research by D.Smith, I try to review this subject-object dichotomy. And last, I demonstrate how TV program-watching is actually organized as categorization practices. In conclusion, TV program watching is language-use activity or social activity.
This paper focuses on three main problems related to the use of electronic bulletin board(NIFTY-Serve). First, I investigate the impact of using electronic bulletin boards on other communication activities. Second, I explore the motives for using an electronic bulletin board, particularly the differences in motives among three user groups which are divided by their attitudes toward the electronic bulletin board. Thirdly, what image of the sources do users perceive through an anonymous commnication situation in which only messages are exchanged? People who use the electronic bulletin board view television much less than the average Japanese viewer. The high-attitude group is associated with more instrumental using motives than the low-attitude group. Factor analysis produced three independent dimensions for evaluating the image of message sources.
Malaysia is a pluralistic society which consists of three major racial groups, the Malay, the Chinese and the Indians who each keep their own language. In recent studies, however, the essential language problem in this society is based on a class structure which crosses racial lines. That is, English for the elite, and the other languages for the non-elite which include Malay, the national language. The mass media are also in the arena of this conflict. In this paper, the English media are shown to be gaining strength in response to the context of "Vision 2020" announced by Prime Minister Dr.Mahatir. "Vision 2020" is intended to enable this country to catch up with developed countries on the media scene as a clear manifestation of the elite's efforts to keep up with the international information market.
After the Korean Movement for Independence arose in 1919, the Japanese Colonial Goverment of Korea set up the Korean Information Committee in 1920 and began propaganda for the purpose of alleviating the Korean people's antipathy toward Japanese colonial rule and criticism by Japanese of the colonial policy in Korea. The Korea Information Committee was the model for the Cabinet Information Committee in Japan, which was set up in 1936, in regard to the type of committee system and the composition of the secretariat. Both the committees were under the jurisdiction of the cabinet secretary. The Japanese Colonial Government issued a pamphlet called "Tsuho", which was the Korean version of the "Shuho", a national policy pamphlet published in Japan. Just like the "Shuho", the "Tsuho" aimed at mobilizing the Korean people for war. But the latter was different from the former in the way it used visuals.
The research literature on the influence of TV on children's prosocial behavior is reviewed. Quite a lot of research in this field was carried out in the 1970s, mainly in the United States, and it produced significant knowledge acquired through laboratory and field experiments. In the 1980s, while the amount of research has decreased, the research trend has moved in three directions: (1) to identify and apply mediating variables to amplify prosocial influences; (2) to assess the effects of viewing television on subsequent prosocial behaviors in natural settings; (3) to identify television prosocial behavior via content analysis of TV programs.