After World War II, the Civil Information and Education Section (CIE) of GHQ encouraged the setting up of schools of journalism at Japanese universities and expected these schools to train potential journalists. However, the journalism programs which were established in Japan did not emphasize practical training. Therefore the CIE's expectations were not met. Why did American-style practical training in universities not take root in Japan? Was that because of the lack of cooperation between universities and newspapers? This paper examines inter-party and intra-party conflicts and compromises among the three main actors: the CIE, universities, and the newspaper industry. This paper utilizes documents from GHQ/SCAP and Frank L. Mott that had not been examined to any great extent in previous studies. This paper reveals that (1) the journalism programs at Waseda and Keio universities were founded hastily because they wanted the subsidies from the Japan Newspaper Publishers and Editors Association; (2) there were differences in the degree of enthusiasm for journalist education between the Information Division and the Educational Division at the CIE; and (3) the newspaper industry, which preferred practical on-the-job apprenticeships, was not enthusiastic regarding formal journalistic training in universities because it doubted its practicability. In addition, this paper concludes that the Japanese newspapermen and journalism professors felt compelled to accept American ideas and were resentful of the CIE. Furthermore, since journalism studies had been dormant in wartime Japan, journalist education had to start with a shaky theoretical foundation. As a result, journalist education in occupied Japan did not have high standing or a high reputation, which continues to constrain its development even today.
This study into the Japanese blogosphere examined the sources used by Japanese A-list political blogs, the sources' influence on the attitude of the A-list bloggers, and the influence of A-list blogs on the attitude of other bloggers. A content analysis of 47 A-list political blogs during Japan's 2007 Upper House election campaign found that A-list blogs considerably depended on mainstream media as sources. 44.8% of these mainstreams sources were accounted for by newspapers, with online news making up another 39.3%. The analysis also found upon an examination of opinions regarding the Liberal Democratic Party that few news items in mainstream media expressed political opinions, whereas most blog items did. The low degree of coincidence between the political opinions of A-list blogs and those in mainstream media suggests there was no influence from these sources on the attitude of A-list bloggers. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant coincidence between the political opinions of A-list blogs and the ones of blogs that cited A-list blogs. Nevertheless, this importance of this coincidence should not be over-emphasized, as the majority of blogs analyzed expressed negative opinions regarding the Liberal Democratic Party in any case.
This research paper analyzes the circulation of information between community radio and residents affected by the 2010 Amami floods in order to consider the potential of and issuing regarding the use of community radio as media for use in times of disaster. The case study used relates to Amami FM, a community radio station on the Amami islands, which engaged in continuous disaster broadcasts 24 hours a day while making use of cross media for five days during the flooding on the islands in October 2010. During its broadcasting, the radio station received 717 e-mails from its listeners. The research method used was analysis in chronological order of these 717 e-mails, and interviews of the staff and listeners of Amami FM and of employees of the Amami city government. As a result of this research, it was discovered that the first information on the disaster came from an e-mail with an attached photo sent from a listener and the radio station's broadcast of the disaster triggered further reactions from the islanders. As such, an information cycle between Amami FM, the islanders, and employees of the city government developed as time passed. The research demonstrates the process of the circulation of information between the disaster area and other areas. This paper discusses the potential of community radio as media for use in times of disaster and the conditions required for the realization of this potential. In addition, this paper also reveals how, despite their radio broadcasts only covering a limited area, community radio stations have the potential - through partnerships with television and other forms of mass media, together with the use of technologies such as internet streaming - to serve as a "media hub" that connects people nation-wide, or even world-wide, who are worried about an area struck by a disaster.
The objective of this paper is to construct a mathematical model based on the threshold model proposed by Granovetter and to use the model to present new viewpoints and interpretations of the spiral of silence process described by Noelle-Neumann. First, the paper focuses on the problematic concept of "fear of isolation" and argues for the necessity of Granovetter's threshold model. It then constructs a mathematical model that addresses the multiple issues that exist in conventional mathematical models of the spiral of silence. This new model adopts threshold models of diversity (Granovetter and Soong, 1988) and uses normal distributions as threshold distributions. Furthermore, the model has variables representing biases in the perception of opinion climate. The model shows that there are two states that arise according to the threshold distributions. These two states are closely related to whether the spiral of silence process occurs or not. In other words, the spiral of silence process may occur in one state, but never in the other. Furthermore, the two states are also related to the effect of biases in the perception of opinion climate. Namely, the effect may be strong and permanent in one state, while being limited and temporary in the other. This paper formulates these two states, naming them "the structures of threshold distributions."
This study aims to clarify the characteristics of the readers' column in the Japan Times during World War II. Founded in 1897 with the support of the government, businessmen, and researchers, the newspaper was expected to produce Japanese propaganda after the Manchurian Incident in 1931. Previous studies have tried to examine Japanese propaganda through the analysis of the editorials in the newspaper. However, very little has been written about the readers' column, which was laid out beside the editorial and was supposed to be a forum for free speech. This article focuses on the Asama Maru Incident (January 21^<st>, 1940) - a scandal that provoked an anti-British campaign in the Japanese-language press and eventually propelled Japan into World War II - to reveal how the readers' column in the Japan Times was a forum for open international discussion. From when the incident occurred (January 21) to when some of the captured Germans were released in Yokohama (March 2) , 13 out of a total of 66 letters published in the readers' corner were about the Asama Maru Incident. An analysis of the writers, who were from England, Japan, and Germany (in addition to a few anonymous writers) , reveals that eight were pro-Britain and five were anti-Britain. In comparison, the Japanese-language press was completely anti-Britain and the two other English papers were completely on the side of Britain and the U.S. during the same period. I conclude that this column functioned as an 'asylum for foreign people's free speech' in order to make the Japanese propaganda in the rest of the paper more effective and palatable. I also point out that the messages in the column, the editorial and the translations from the Japanese press functioned in a mutually complementary manner to each other with regard to the propaganda in the Japan Times. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding public diplomacy in English-language media.
In recent years, models on fashion magazines have become highly popular in Japan. Such popularity finds its explanation in the enthusiastic behavior of fans as can be noticed in big fashion events such as "Tokyo Girls Collection". This paper ethnographically describes the phenomenon of the behavior of models' fans. In order to understand their interpretation and feelings about fashion models, the author conducted a semi-structural survey asking eighteen women about their most favorite models in 2011. This paper also looks into how fashion magazines, the place of activity for models, are perceived by the fans. The participants' observation at girls' events has also been assessed. The findings of the research can be stated as follows. According to fans, fashion magazines constitute a source of information about models. In fact, the attention of fans goes straight to the features of the body, the face or to the hairstyle of models. The models' fans do not interact with each other as is usually the case. Fans are not really interested in the personality or the private life of models. The paper shows however that at girls' events, the fans are more attracted by the features of the body.