In this paper, I consider the media coverage of dioxin emissions i n Japan. The
“disproportionality” i s one element of the moral panic, and this focuses on the
extent to which the“ degree of public concern over the behavior i tself, the problem
i t poses, or condition i t creates i s far greater than i s true for comparable,
even more damaging actions （Goode & Ben-Yehuda 1994：36）”. But about social
problems have high “uncertainty”, such as environmental problems i n the
risk society, we are hard to explaining the “objective” risk of social problems
and reviewing the process of construction.
In this paper, I would suggest a standard to consider“ uncertainly”, and apply
to the media coverage of dioxin emission i n Japan.
This article focuses on“ Middle Class TV Drama”, a new genre of TV that began
around 2000. Through an analysis of selected reception theory, such as the
encoding-decoding model developed by Stuart Hall and the i dentity construction
of Ien Ang, this article uses qualitative research （the ethnographical approach
employed by David Morley）with various audiences from different age groups,
educational and occupational backgrounds. In the results of this research on the
different responses to “Middle Class TV Drama”, particular attention was paid
to uncover whether respondents constructed dominant, oppositional or negotiated
readings（ the three categories of readings proposed by Hall）. By then analyzing
the social backgrounds of “Middle Class TV Drama”, i t was found that
“Middle Class TV Drama” i s the result of the collective function of multiple social
forces. Finally, this article considers possible ways to approach the meaningful
study of the media reception process i n present day China.
In the early 1910s, when stage actresses emerged, the so-called “Katsudō-
Actresses” appeared i n the cinema scene. I examine how they differed from
contemporary film actresses and how they were received by audiences back
then. I analyzed the earliest film magazine of Katsudōshashinkai from 1909 to
1912. The activities of Katsudō-Actresses were not limited to acting on screen.
They also performed on stage as actors of chain-dramas, and dancers of side
shows played i n movie theaters. Katsudō-Actresses appealed to the audience
through both presentation and representation. Such uniqueness was sustained
by the circumstance of the early Japanese cinema.
The purpose of this article i s to examine the substance of editorial freedom
through the NHK case. I focused on clarifying two crucial i ssues. The first, reviewing
the relationship of editorial freedom to“ right of expectation for reporting”,
I deduced some requirements for the latter, legally admitted. As a result
of the requirements to this case being applied, the plaintiff’s claim to have the
right of expectation for reporting was not justified. The second, I concluded editorial
i ndependence of NHK production staff had been i nfringed during the program
manipulation. However, the Supreme Court made no mention of the i ssue.
Our concern i s to examine i ssues relating to the falsification of the NHK television
program“ ETV 2001” broadcasted on Jan. 30, 2001. But here we limit our
discussion to the matter of press freedom. The judgment each pronounced by
the Supreme Court and the Tokyo High Court i llustrate the point. The former
took account of“ the freedom of expression” i ndemnified by the Constitution of
Japan, the latter condemned an i llegality of NHK for dereliction of i ts duty as a
corporate body. It i s clear that there are substantial discrepancies between
them i n the concept of freedom.