Many kinds of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) have been developed and used as basic materials of industrial products, and they may pose health risks for workers in not only developed countries but also in developing countries. Few studies have looked at the evidence for effects of controls that mitigate the risk of exposure to MNMs. Therefore, we systematically searched the literature from the year 2000 to 2015. We included studies that compared the use of an exposure control to the situation without such a technique and those that measured the exposure to MNMs as the outcome. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these controls, we used their “protection factor”, defined as the ratio between concentrations without and with the control. We located 1,131 references in PubMed and other lists, and out of these references, 41 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We categorized them as engineering controls such as enclosure, local exhaust ventilation or process automation, and as personal protective equipment (PPE). For enclosure systems we found a protection factor beyond 100. For other engineering controls, the better controls scored 10 to 20, but many cases of local exhaust ventilation had a protection factor of less than 10 and some cases even increased exposure. PPE such as N95 or equivalent filtering respirators had a protection factor of approximately 10 tested with nano-sized aerosols. We conclude that there is low quality evidence that specific engineering controls can reduce exposure to MNMs but that enclosure is considerably more effective. For respiratory protection the evidence is of very low quality due to the lack of field studies. This information can be used to decide about controls when exposure to MNMs exceeds proposed occupational exposure limits or when no toxicological information is available for a MNM.
Because of the health effects of secondhand smoke, the Japanese government is trying to establish an effective law for total avoidance of secondhand smoke in indoor environments for tobacco-free Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic games 2020, as requested by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Meanwhile, Philip Morris International has begun selling a new heat-not-burn tobacco, iQOS, which it claims is designed not to produce secondhand smoke. There is little scientific data, however, of the hazards and toxicity of iQOS. In this study, we evaluated several harmful compounds (nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide (CO) and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs)) in the mainstream smoke and fillers of iQOS, and compared their concentrations with those from conventional combustion cigarettes. The concentrations of nicotine in tobacco fillers and the mainstream smoke of iQOS were almost the same as those of conventional combustion cigarettes, while the concentration of TSNAs was one fifth and CO was one hundredth of those of conventional combustion cigarettes. These toxic compounds are not completely removed from the mainstream smoke of iQOS, making it necessary to consider the health effects and regulation of iQOS.
To perform a bronchoscopy safely, it is very important to make a risk assessment before and after the procedure. There have been no reports of hypoxemia during sleep on the day after a bronchoscopic examination; therefore, we evaluated the oxygen saturation status during sleep on the days before and after bronchoscopy. Thirty patients that underwent bronchoscopy were studied. Continuous pulse oximetry monitoring was performed on the day before bronchoscopy and the day when the bronchoscopy was performed. The average oxygen saturation levels and the oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were evaluated. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the ODI-3% during sleep on the day of the bronchoscopy compared to the day before the bronchoscopy. Clinicians should pay careful attention to hypoxia not only during bronchoscopy, but also during sleep on the night following the procedure.
It is important to evaluate body functions and structures, activity, and participation in stroke rehabilitation. The Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), a new stroke-specific self-report measure that was developed by Duncan et al, is widely used to measure multidimensional consequences about health-related quality of life. The SIS version 3.0 includes 9 domains (strength, hand function, activity of daily living and instrumental activity of daily living, mobility, communication, emotion, memory and thinking, participation, and recovery). Patients are asked to make a percentage rating of their recovery since their stroke on a visual analog scale of 0 to 100 for the stroke recovery domain. Each item in the 8 domains other than stroke recovery are scored in a range of 1 to 5 as a raw score and calculated using the manual to a final score. We developed a Japanese version of the SIS version 3.0 and assessed its reliability and validity in 32 chronic stroke survivors. The internal consistency (Cronbachʼs α < 0.70) was satisfactory. The test-retest reliability (ICC, 0.86 to 0.96) was also satisfactory. Regarding convergent validity, a significant correlation (Spearmanʼs correlation coefficient, P < 0.05) was found between the SIS physical domain score and Brunnstrom stage (r, 0.49 to 0.53) and short form 8 (r = 0.82). The Japanese version of the SIS version 3.0 is valid, reliable, and clinically useful for stroke survivors.
Pediatric cholecystolithiasis is a relatively rare disease, but it is recently increasing in Japan. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a standard procedure for cholecystolithiasis not only in adults but also in children, and we are aggressively introducing single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) at our hospital. We reviewed the patient characteristics, operation procedures and outcomes of 7 children (15 years old and under) with cholecystolithiasis who underwent LC in our hospital between August 1995 and December 2015. The 7 patients included 5 males and 2 females, with a mean age of 8 years 6 months. Underlying diseases were found in 5 patients (cerebral palsy in 2 patients, pancreaticobiliary maljunction with common bile duct stones in 1, acute lymphocytic leukemia in 1, hereditary stomatocytosis in 1), and none were found in the other 2. LC (3 conventional LC and 2 SILC) was performed in 5 of the patients. Laparoscopic choledocholithotomy was performed in 1 patient and laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) was performed in 1 patient at the same time. The mean operative time in all the cases of LC was 108 (70-140) minutes (conventional LC 113 (70-140) min, SILC 100 (90-100) min). Intraoperative cholangiography was performed in 4 cases and omitted in 3 cases. The only postoperative complication was a wound infection in 1 patient. The umbilical skin incision length in the SILC was 2.0 cm. We conclude that LC can be safely performed for children with cholecsytolithiasis, and that SILC is feasible and advantageous in terms of its improved cosmesis.
This study aimed to clarify the factors related to self-efficacy experienced by psychiatric nurses. Analysis of qualitative descriptive data from a free self-description questionnaire administered to 16 psychiatric nurses working in psychiatric hospitals revealed 24 codes across the following 8 categories as factors that increase self-efficacy: A1. possibility of practical use in nursing, A2. nursing judgment, A3. improvement of psychiatric symptoms, A4. the patients presenting a positive attitude, A5. building a relationship of trust with the patients, A6. building a relationship of trust with other nurses, A7. work progressing according to plan and A8. team medical practice. Twenty-five codes across the following 10 categories were identified as factors that decrease self-efficacy: B1. lack of communication, B2. uncertainty in caregiving, B3. recurrence of psychiatric symptoms, B4. feeling overpowered by a patient, B5. sense of being too busy to work adequately, B6. difficulty in bringing about self-improvement, B7. sense of loss regarding one’s role as a nurse, B8. lack of physical strength, B9. mechanical performance of nursing and B10. fluctuating view of nursing due to mistakes. These factors require intervention for psychiatric nurses’ self-efficacy.
Advances in treatment in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for preterm and sick newborns have improved the mortality rate of patients, but admission to the NICU may disrupt parent-infant interaction, with adverse consequences for infants and their families because of physical, psychological, and emotional separation. The concept of family centered care (FCC), in which family members are part of the care team and infants are close to the family, is important and has become popular in NICU. In 2013, we created a team called “Kodomo-Kazoku Mannaka” to promote FCC in Japan, and visited the NICU at Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden, which is internationally famous for FCC. Since this fruitful visit, we have been promoting FCC in Japan by exhibitions and presentations of the FCC ideas at academic conferences and using internet services. A questionnaire survey conducted in 2015 revealed that the importance and the benefits of FCC in NICU are recognized, although there are some barriers to FCC in each facility. It is hard to change facilities and social systems right away, but it is easier and more important to change peopleʼs minds. Our role is to spread the concept of FCC and to help each facility find its own way to adopt it. We will continue to make efforts encourage to promote FCC in Japan.
A 54-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for detailed examination of acromegaly because she noticed bilateral hand and finger swelling at the age of 43 and plantar thickening, facial changes and unclear articulation at the age of 49. She had prominent brow ridges, mandibular protrusion, and enlargement of the hands, feet, nasal wings, lips and tongue. Her growth hormone (GH) level was 39.8 ng/ml, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level was 717 ng/ml, GH level was not suppressed (22.9 ng/ml) during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Radiography showed cauliflower-like enlargement of the distal phalanx of the fingers, thickening/enlargement of the plantar soft tissues, and increased antero-posterior diameter of the sella turcica. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass (21×17 mm) growing towards the right suprasellar region and invading the cavernous sinus. She was diagnosed with acromegaly based on the characteristic physical findings, GH excess, high IGF-1, lack of GH suppression during the 75-g OGTT, and the presence of a pituitary tumor. She was started on octreotide long acting release (Oct-LAR) 20 mg/4w for tumor shrinkage. After three doses, her GH and IGF-1 levels decreased to 2.19 ng/ml (1.69 during the 75-g OGTT) and 205 ng/ml, respectively, meeting cure criteria for acromegaly. In this case, a decrease in GH and IGF-1 levels, tumor shrinkage, and resolution of cavernous sinus invasion allowed the patient to undergo surgery with curative intent (the first-line treatment for acromegaly) without postoperative complications. Thus, preoperative Oct-LAR administration has the potential to improve treatment outcomes of acromegaly.