The usefulness of the serum Cu/Zn ratio as a tumor marker for lung cancer was evaluated. Abnormally elevated levels of the ratio were detected in 58% of the patients with lung cancer. The mean value of serum Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher in the patients with lung cancer than in the healthy controls, but the difference between the patients with lung cancer and patients with nonmalignant pulmonary diseases was not statistically significant. The serum Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher in patients with an advanced stage of lung cancer than in patients with early stage of lung cancer. However, the receiver operating characteristic curve of serum Cu/Zn ratio for discriminating lung cancer from nonmalignant pulmonary diseases, was very similar to that of C-reactive protein. These observations indicate that although the serum Cu/Zn ratio is not a tumor specific marker for lung cancer, it may be a useful stage marker for patients with inflammatory and consumptive disorders such as lung cancer.
We measured the concentrations of the total sulfated bile acids in urine (U-TSBA) by enzymatic colorimetry with an automated analyzer. The U-TSBA levels in healthy subjects decreased with age. Neither sex difference nor the effect of meal was found in the U-TSBA levels. The reference values are <19.48, <12.27 and <6.60μmol/g creatinine for the group of under 4 years old, 4-17 years old and more than 18 years old, respectively. The U-TSBA level increased significantly in patients with hepatobiliary diseases. The U-TSBA level showed a significant correlation with either serum transaminases activity, serum total bile acid level and serum direct bilirubin concentration in patients with hepatobiliary diseases. The measurement of U-TSBA was more efficient for detecting hepatobiliary diseases than that of urobilinogen and bilirubin in urine, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase in serum and, almost the same as that of total bile acids, alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase in serum. Since the determination of U-TSBA is not only a noninvasive procedure, but also a sensitive test for hepatobiliary diseases and urine collected at any time can be used for the test, it may be convenient as a routine liver test in the out-patient clinic.
We studied the diazo reaction of the water-soluble photoproducts of bilirubin using nine kinds of diazonium salts to select the diazonium salt most suitable for the determination of serum bilirubin. The diazonium salt of 3-nitroaniline was found to be more suitable than that of sulfanilic acid used extensively in clinical practice. This diazonium salt reacted readily with not only bilirubin but also the photoproducts, and the reaction of patients' serum bilirubin was completed in 2 or 3 min. The change in the measurement values obtained using this diazonium salt before and after irradiation with a fluorescent lamp was smaller than that obtained by the enzymatic method or the diazo method using the diazotized sulfanilic acid.
An improved colorimetric method for the determination of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide is described. Phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide was allowed to react with potassium iodide in the presence of acetylchloride at room temperature, and the liberated iodine was measured colorimetrically at 550 nm after the addition of starch in 10% aqueous acetic acid. A linear response was observed between 5 and 40 nmol.