Loloh Cemcem, a traditional beverage containing Cemcem leaves of (Spondias pinnata (L.f.) Kurz) from the tourism area of Penglipuran, has been widely distributed across Bali. This study aims to examine the microbiological quality of Loloh Cemcem and its association with hygiene and the sanitation of its production processes. A cross-sectional study was conducted, involving all home industries that produce Loloh Cemcem and its handlers, four water depots, and three samples of water source in Penglipuran, Bali. Observations and interviews were conducted to obtain data on hygiene and sanitation. Samples were tested for microbiological qualities, including total plate count (TPC), most probable number (MPN) method for coliform, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination was conducted to identify virulent genes. The water source was contaminated with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and about 25% of water depots and 43.3% of Loloh Cemcem samples were also contaminated with E. coli. This indicates E. coli viability under an acidic medium (average pH of 2.8). Of the 30 home industries, 76.7% of sanitation facilities met the safety standards, while the conditions were considerably lower for instrument sanitation (60.0%), personal hygiene of the handlers (50.0%), and production site sanitation (43.3%). Poor personal hygiene of the handlers was associated with the microbiological quality of Loloh Cemcem with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 15.02 (95%CI: 1.32–171.56, P = 0.029). Ongoing monitoring is warranted to improve personal hygiene and sanitation of the production processes. Microbiological research is essential to understand the nature of E. coli, including its viability in acidic environments.
Various edible algae have been traditionally consumed as healthy food stuffs in Asian countries such as China, Korea and Japan, and roasting treatments have been carried out on some of these edible algae for the improvement of their taste and flavor. In the present paper, we analyzed the effect of roasting treatments on the radical scavenging activity of a typical Japanese edible brown alga, Laminaria japonica (L. japonica, Ma-konbu). The effect was estimated by a stable radical compound, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and a chemiluminescence assay of superoxide anion generation using hypoxanthine (HPX) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) system. Weak but significant radical scavenging activities against the DPPH radical and superoxide anion were observed in the water extract of L. japonica when it was roasted at 130-150ºC. Very strong radical-scavenging activities were detected under much higher temperature conditions (180-200ºC). The enhancing effect of the roasting treatment on the radical scavenging activity was highly associated with the roasting-induced increase of polyphenol and tannin in the L. japonica extract. The sugar concentrations in the L. japonica extracts under different roasting conditions were significantly, but not strongly associated with their radical scavenging activities. The protein concentrations in the L. japonica extracts, however, were not associated with their radical scavenging activities under different roasting conditions. Furthermore, the extracts of L. japonica roasted under higher temperature conditions (180-200ºC) caused strong radical scavenging effects on the generation of opsonized zymosan (Opz)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human blood neutrophils, which was measured by chemiluminescence assay. These experimental results suggest that the roasting treatment of L. japonica causes an enhancing effect on the radical scavenging activity in the extract of this alga, and is associated with the increase in various radical scavenging substances in the extract. The significance of this finding is discussed from the viewpoint of healthy food science.
Among the most important complaints of people exposed to noise are the feelings of resentment and annoyance, and the changes in mental conditions, which are among the main psychological consequences affecting the concentration and accuracy of workers. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between annoyance and cognitive performance of workers exposed to chronic noise. This is a descriptive-analytical study conducted on workers in an automotive company. Three hundred workers exposed to noise were entered into the study in two groups: administrative (150 people) and industrial (150 people). The Tower of London and the Stroop computerized psychological tests were used to determine the cognitive status of the workers, and a questionnaire with numbered questions (numbered 1 to 11) was used in order to determine their level of annoyance. There was a significant correlation between the workers’ cognitive performance and annoyance levels (P value <0.001). Linear regression results showed that cognitive performance had a significant relationship with the received sound intensity, while the workers’ annoyance had a significant relationship with cognitive performance only in the number of wrong answers, the number of unanswered questions, and the number of correct answers in the Stroop test (P value <0.001). The researchers concluded that exposure to chronic noise in work environments could bring about occupational annoyance, and consequently, cognitive disorders, which could increase the risk of errors. More studies are needed to further explore this relationship.
Lanthanum (La) carbonate (LC) is one of the most popular phosphate binders used in dialysis patients with end-stage renal disease. Only a small amount of LC is believed to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract because LC strongly binds to dietary phosphate and forms insoluble complexes. La deposition in the gastroduodenal mucosa has been recently identified. Endoscopically, La deposition is demonstrated as whitish lesions of varying sizes and shapes in the gastroduodenal mucosa. Microscopically, La deposition is characterized by histiocytic reaction or small foreign body granulomas containing gray or brown materials mainly in the lamina propria of the GI mucosa. Some histiocytes containing La can migrate into regional lymph nodes via the lymphatic flow. The amount of La deposition in the gastroduodenal mucosa is correlated with the total dose of LC administration, and La deposition is almost consistently observed in LC-treated dialysis patients. Although the detailed mechanism of La deposition in the GI tract is still unclear, several factors, such as gastric pH and metaplastic change of the mucosal epithelium, may be involved in the La deposition in the gastroduodenal mucosa. Here we present an overview of the feature of La deposition in the GI tract.
Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular heart disease and is most frequently recognized among elderly people. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is the most effective therapy, but its indication is sometimes difficult, and is impossible for high operative risk patients. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) was recently approved in Japan for high risk and inoperable patients with severe AS. TAVR is a less invasive method because it does not require a cardiopulmonary bypass and is associated with excellent surgical outcomes. In Western countries, the indication of TAVR has already been extended to moderate operative risk patients with severe AS, and is going to be further extended to low risk patients. The number of patients undergoing TAVR is increasing progressively, and there are effective alternative therapies for patients with severe AS. Selection of these surgical methods will be important in the near future. In regard to low operative risk patients especially, not only operative mortality, but also long-tern mortality and morbidity and quality of life should be taken into consideration. It is considered that some comorbidities in AS patients will be revealed to have an impact on surgical outcomes at the time when these surgical methods are selected. In this review, we examine end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis, functional tricuspid regurgitation, and sigmoid septum, and give an outline of what influence SAVR and TAVR have on the surgical outcomes of severe AS patients.
We describe a case of periprosthetic femoral fracture with 5 major features of an atypical femoral fracture (AFF) and localized cortical thickening at the fracture site, which is characteristic of an AFF. An 81-year-old female patient had undergone cementless total hip arthroplasty for a right femoral neck fracture at the age of 66, and had been taking oral alendronate since then. At the age of 79, she developed spontaneous right thigh pain. Radiographs showed lateral cortical thickening and pedestal formation around the end of the femoral component. She was advised to discontinue oral alendronate and change to eldecalcitol. At the age of 81, she developed sudden severe pain when standing up from a seated position and was not able to walk. Radiographs showed a periprosthetic femoral fracture with 5 major features of AFF at the site of localized cortical thickening. We diagnosed a Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic femoral fracture. She underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with an NCB® Periprosthetic Femur Plate System with cable grips. Daily subcutaneous injection of teriparatide and low intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy were performed to stimulate bone healing. She was able to walk without assistance at 4 months after ORIF. Radiographs showed adequate bridging callus and a disappearing fracture line. This case was diagnosed as a periprosthetic atypical femoral fracture (PAFF), because a periprosthetic fracture is excluded from the definition of AFF. Similar to AFF, PAFF exhibits poor clinical outcomes. The approach to treating PAFF should be decided after considering the pathogenesis.
We investigated the adsorption characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the surface of coffee beans after extraction (coffee grounds). Temperature-controllable adsorption equipment of VOC vapor was manufactured, and nitrogen gas containing about 100 ppm of VOC vapor was introduced into a coffee extraction residue. The air in the downstream was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector over a period of time. A breakthrough curve was obtained from the analysis of values and time, and the adsorbed amount of each volatile organic compound on the coffee grounds was calculated from a graphical integration of the breakthrough curve. Fourteen VOCs were tested, and the adsorbed amount tended to increase with increases in the boiling point of the VOCs. It was also found that the adsorbed amount of methanol and toluene was affected by the water content in the coffee grounds used in the experiment.
Dust indicators based on light scattering photometers are widely used to measure aerosol concentrations in work environments. These concentrations at workplaces in Japan are measured by these dust indicators and calibrated by mass concentration in order to control workers’ exposure to dust. The mass concentration in a specific point in a workplace is measured simultaneously with a dust indicator. The mass concentration of the respirable fraction of dust particles should be determined by the gravimetric method with low volume air samplers or other devices, but some dust indicators are not equipped with a size separator for respirable fraction, and we used to get unstable results at the calibration. In this study, we designed miniature cyclones for a dust indicator and evaluated their performances of respirable fraction and PM2.5 fraction.
Oxidative stress in biological components has become recognized as one of the causative factors of various diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of worker lifestyle and fatigue on the levels of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative stress. Our results revealed that urinary 8-OHdG level was increased by alcohol intake and decreased by snack intake and adequate sleep time on the day before the survey. A decrease in urinary 8-OHdG level was also observed in parallel with a decrease in workload. Urinary 8-OHdG monitoring is expected to be useful for disease prevention in the future.