We found an effective roasting method that enhances the effects on various radical scavenging activities of polysaccharide (alginic acid) derived from the marine brown alga Lessonia trabeculata. These enhancing effects were observed by a roasting treatment under relatively high temperature conditions (160ºC and 180ºC), which were measured by (i) a stable radical compound diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), (ii) a hydroperoxide generating system of linoleic acid autooxidation, and (iii) an opsonized zymosan (Opz)-induced oxygen radical generating system in human blood neutrophils. Although a significant enhancing effect of the roasting treatment on the radical scavenging activity of the alginic acid itself was not detected under relatively low temperature conditions (100ºC and 130ºC), the roasting treatment of a mixture of alginic acid and several specific amino acids caused considerable radical scavenging activities under the same roasting conditions. When alginic acid was roasted at relatively high temperatures (160ºC or 180ºC), the mixture of the alginic acid and specific amino acids exhibited much higher radical scavenging activities than did the alginic acid alone. The significance of this finding is discussed from the viewpoint of healthy food science.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether Foods with Function Claims (FFC) containing asparagus extract effectively improved sleep quality and work performance in shift workers. An intervention study with a before-and-after intervention design was conducted on nurses engaged in two-shift work at a hospital, ingesting a FFC containing asparagus extract. The evaluation period lasted at least two weeks, including three nights shifts during the period. Before and after ingestion, Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index (PSQI), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), Sleep quality (VAS-rated), impaired work functioning, and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated. A diary record, wearing of an activity meter, and a Psychomotor vigilance test were also performed at baseline and after intervention. Data were analyzed by the paired t-test or the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Among 34 participants, 33 completed the study. The results of the primary outcome measures showed significant improvements in PSQI and Sleep Quality in the night of the day after a night shift (PSQI total score: base line 7.41/ post intervention 6.03: P < 0.001; sleep quality: base line 4.48/post intervention 6.00: P < 0.001). The results of the secondary outcome measures showed significant improvements in UWES and feeling of fatigue. There was also trend of improvement in sleep efficiency and the reaction time. There was no significant improvement in impaired work functioning. This study showed that regular consumption of an FFC containing asparagus extract could improve sleep quality, feeling of fatigue, and work engagement among shift workers. Some caution, however, is needed when interpreting the results because of the before-and-after intervention design without a control group.
In the event of a high-dose radiation exposure accident, adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplantation might be used as an emergency medical treatment to compensate for bone marrow failure. To investigate the possible course of that treatment, we examined whether transplantation of ADSCs into whole-body X-ray irradiated mice would provide resistance to radiation damage. ADSCs were obtained from a primary culture of adipocytes from adipose tissue of syngeneic mice. The ADSCs were transplanted via an intravenous (i.v.) route after whole-body irradiation (6 Gy, X-rays) of the ICR mice. Fifty days after transplantation, the survival rate of the transplanted group was 40% higher than the control group, and the difference in survival rates was maintained in the following 200 days. After 400 days, however, the difference in survival rates became smaller and disappeared after 650 days. The results indicate that ADSC transplantation may reduce lethality from acute radiation bone marrow injury for several hundred days.
This study examines factors associated with activity limitation and the decline in quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and to determine standard values that would be useful for understanding the disease state. We assessed individual factors, the modified version of the Self-Rating Frenchay Activities Index (SR-FAI), and the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) of 661 participants. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between dependent and explanatory variables. Standard values were calculated after stratifying based on factors related to each dependent variable through multiple regression analyses. Among the participants aged 60-74/75-89 years, the standard values for the modified SR-FAI were 23/19 and 20/18 points for K-L grades III and IV in the males, and 29/23 and 26/21 points in the females, respectively. The standard values for the JKOM were 35/49 and 45/59 points for K-L grades III and IV in the males and 41/52 and 47/60 points in the females, respectively. These standard values are a useful index for interpreting the degree of activity limitation and satisfaction reduction in patients with knee OA, and could help in clinical decision making for healthcare providers.
In depression, the health condition of family members (particularly spouses) may influence the reinstatement process of employees on temporary leave. The length of leave from work may reflect the quality of the process leading to the stage of reinstatement, and a short period to reinstatement may increase the possibility of a smooth reinstatement. In this study we investigated the relationship between spouse factors and length of leave period. The subjects were 63 permanent employees on temporary leave for depression and their spouses. We investigated demographic characteristics, spouse factors, individual factors, household factors, and workplace factors, and extracted the factors related to the length of leave period through hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results revealed that the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI), a spouse factor, was consistently and significantly related to the length of leave (β = −0.37, P < 0.01). The higher the spouse FAI, the shorter the leave period of employees on temporary leave. In particular, the spouses’ leisure activities were related to the leave period, whereas the effects of housework and work were unclear. The results suggest that the assessment and intervention of the spouses’ activities of daily living are important in reinstatement support.
The primary purpose of this study was to clarify the path by which high job demands on home-visit nursing staff affect their mental health through work-family negative spillover (WFNS, FWNS). The secondary purpose was to clarify the path by which high job control and high social support in the workplace positively affect the mental health of nursing home-visit staff through work-family positive spillover (WFPS, FWPS). A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on 1,022 visiting nursing staff working at 108 visiting nursing stations in Fukuoka Prefecture in February, 2019. The measurement tools comprised sociodemographic factors, the Japanese version of the Survey Work-Home Interaction – NijmeGen (SWING-J), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ-22), the Work-Family Culture Scale, and the K6 scale. Six models were determined in an analysis of the model: (1) working time load → WFNS → FWNS → psychological distress, (2) job demands → WFNS → FWNS → psychological distress, (3) job demands → psychological distress, (4) workplace support → job control → WFPS → psychological distress, (5) workplace support → WFPS → psychological distress, and (6) workplace support → psychological distress. This study clarified that job demands and working time load may adversely affect the mental health of home-visit nursing staff through the mediation of WFNS. It was also clarified that high job control and workplace support may have a positive effect on mental health through the mediation of WFPS.
Productivity loss due to presenteeism accounts for a large proportion of economic losses caused by workers’ health problems. To reduce presenteeism, it is necessary to identify its causes, but, in contrast to the large amount of research on the effects of diseases and lifestyles, there is not enough research on the effects of work-related factors on presenteeism. In this study, those factors include the work environment and the work-related psychological status of workers. The purpose of this review was to identify research trends in presenteeism, defined as work-related productivity loss, and to examine future directions for presenteeism research. We conducted a search with only the keyword “presenteeism” using MEDLINE/PubMed for the last 5 years and extracted 30 relevant articles, most of which were cross-sectional studies. The articles were categorized into the following themes: 1) studies on the associations of various stress models and factors with presenteeism; 2) studies on the mediators and the pathways of association between stress factors and presenteeism; 3) studies on the relationships between organizational factors and presenteeism; and 4) studies on the link between workers’ positive and negative psychological status and presenteeism. Our findings showed that, over the last 5 years, the relationship between psychological stress and presenteeism has been extended to include a variety of stress models and stressors. In addition, by putting many models and factors into a single statistical model and adjusting for their interrelationships, important factors have been examined by ensuring that a significant relationship with presenteeism remains. As there is still a lack of longitudinal studies necessary to discuss causality, more research of higher quality is needed.
A 13-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital because of bloody stools. Although a Meckel’s diverticulum (MD) was suspected, capsule endoscopy (CE) revealed no remarkable findings. Seven months later, he was admitted again because of rebleeding. CE was performed again and revealed an elevated lesion and fresh blood in the ileum. A single balloon endoscopic examination revealed a diverticulum with an elevated lesion in it. Histologic findings showed ectopic gastric mucosa, thus we diagnosed this patient as having MD. Although CE is useful for the examination of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, a single CE is not enough to diagnose MD bleeding. The timing in performing CE and the evaluation of other modalities would be valuable for patients suspected of having MD.
A combination chemotherapy of paclitaxel plus carboplatin (TC) is the most frequently used regimen for gynecological malignancies. As long as it is effective, a carboplatin-containing combination chemotherapy is used for every relapse. This implies that the number of platinum administrations and the frequency of hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) increase as the prognosis improves. When a patient develops HSR to carboplatin, we have three options: 1) desensitizing and continuing to use carboplatin, 2) switching to other platinum drugs, or 3) changing to a non-platinum drug. Here we report an experience of an HSR to carboplatin in a patient with recurrent uterine carcinosarcoma. The patient was treated by surgery and TC therapy initially, resulting in no residual disease. The patient relapsed 18 months after the completion of the first-line chemotherapy and was treated with TC therapy again as second-line. An HSR to carboplatin occurred at the 10th cycle of TC in total. We replaced the carboplatin with cisplatin. A chemotherapy including cisplatin and adriamycin was repeated without further HSR. We reviewed the literature regarding HSR to carboplatin and in this paper we summarize the management for dealing with it.
Hyperbaric medicine includes two different medical fields: hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) as emergency and intensive care, and diving medicine. Recent topics in hyperbaric therapy include radiation oncology and regenerative medicine. Of special interest are clinical studies of radiotherapy after HBO that were conducted at some institutes to evaluate its therapeutic effects for cancer patients. A few studies have shown that HBO improves memory disturbance following traumatic brain injury and hypoxic and ischemic events. There is a great possibility that HBO enhances the therapeutic effects of radiotherapy and potentiates regenerative medicine. Randomized controlled trials, however, have indicated the re-examination of its viable treatment effects in some conditions, including decompression illness, carbon monoxide poisoning, and serious soft tissue infection. As recent trends in the treatment of decompression illness have changed on the basis of clinical series, the laws related to diving and caisson work should be amended in the future.
The patient was a 34-year-old woman. Surgical resection and chemotherapy had been performed on diagnosis of malignant melanoma in year X-9. Chronic thyroiditis was diagnosed in year X-8, but her thyroid function was normal. In November of the year X-1, the patient, who had metastasis to the left lung and the left main bronchus and radically unresectable metastases with distant metastases, was treated with the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab. In December X-1, we initiated levothyroxine sodium for hypothyroidism after the patient suffered indolent thyroiditis due to nivolumab. In March X, the nivolumab treatment was stopped because it proved to be ineffective, then in April, anorexia, fever, and general malaise were noted. Cortisol 5.0 and ACTH 17.5 were confirmed by blood test, and the patient was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency and was admitted to the hospital. Head MRI showed no organic lesions, and a stress test showed abnormalities only in a CRH test (low response to both ACTH and cortisol). The patient was diagnosed with isolated ACTH deficiency due to nivolumab. Side effects of thyroid dysfunction due to nivolumab are frequently observed in Japan at a rate of 14.3%, and overseas at 5.9%. However, secondary adrenocortical dysfunction is observed in overseas clinical trials at a frequency of only about 0.3%. There are few reports of such complications, and we report this as a rare case.
We report two cases of synchronous double primary cancers, which were composed of prostate cancer accompanied by bone metastasis and colon cancer, within only five months of each other. The first was a 77-year-old man whose ECOG PS was 0. He was referred to our hospital in March 2020 because abdominal CT scan, which was performed at a clinic for the purpose of close examination of poor control of diabetes, showed wall thickening of the sigmoid colon. A further examination revealed prostate cancer accompanied by metastatic bone cancer and sigmoid colon cancer. Laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy was performed in April. Currently, six months after the surgery, both the prostate cancer and its accompanying metastatic bone cancer are well controlled by hormonal therapy. The second case was an 86-year-old man with an ECOG PS of 3 who was brought to our hospital by ambulance in August, 2020 because of fever and abdominal pain. A close examination revealed cecal cancer accompanying acute appendicitis. Prostate cancer accompanied by metastatic bone cancer was also diagnosed. Laparoscopic ileocecal resection was performed in the same month, but, unfortunately, the patient had repeated aspiration pneumonia and he finally passed away 43 days after surgery. We discuss the treatment strategy for colorectal cancer with synchronous or metachronous prostate cancer, which has been increasing in recent years, and include epidemiological considerations.