How to increase the intelectual productivity of group decision making meetings, such as of planning and strategy making, is an important problem to solve in Japan, where business firms place emphases on consensus decision making. While advanced information technologies help develop group decision support systems to deal with the problem, the knowledge of the structure and process of communication in such meetings is essentially needed to design the systems. In order to acquire the kowledge, the author obseved and analyzed several group decision making meetings which were set for the experimental purposes. The “self-organization” perspective was used to focus on how the context and content of discussing communication emerged during the time of meeting. Results show that the intelectual productivity of the meetings highly related with the amount of control made on the emerging context of discussion. The control was provided by the partcipants' consciousness of how to discuss in the process of meeting.
Fuzzy Flexible Interpretive Structural Modeling (FISM/fuzzy) is a fuzzy version of Flexible Interpretive Structural Modeling (FISM) which appears to be very useful as an aid to individuals and groups in making an decision of various problems. This paper presents an introduction to the fundamental concepts and operations of FISM/fuzzy and reports on the result of an exercise conducted with a group of some members. The foundation of FISM/fuzzy is the theory of fuzzy partially filled reachability matrices which is an extention of the theory of partilally filled reachability matrices of FISM. The results of the exercise demonstrates the utility of the methodology for capturing and communicating individual and group perceptions regarding decision makings of complex issues.
Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) have been proposed to represent causal reasoning by numeric processing. FCMs have the following features: (1) They store domain knowledge in nodes and directional connections. (2) They graphically represent uncertain causal reasoning. (3) Their matrix representations allow causal inferences to be made as feedback associative memory recollections. Many researchers have studied FCMs and applied them to various fields. However, there are some shortcomings concerned with knowledge representation in the conventional FCMs. In this paper, we propose Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (E-FCMs) to represent causal relationships more naturally. The features of the E-FCMs are the following: (1) They can deal with nonlinear causal relationships. (2) They have time delay weights. (3) They have conditional weights. Computer simulation results indicate the effectiveness of the E-FCMs.
This paper presents an efficient computational algorithm for evaluating generation mixes in generation planning. The evaluation of generation mixes is a multi-attribute decision making problem. Uncertainty in the multi-attribute decision making problem can be divided into (a) uncertainty in decision making, and (b) uncertainty in multi-objectivity. The proposed method basically consists of two phases: (1) the construction of the relative preference set which indicates the overall degree to which a generation mix dominates the others, and (2) the linguistic expression of the relative preference set of each generation mix. In the first phase, uncertainty in decision making and uncertainty in multi-objectivity are treated as fuzziness in decision making and fuzziness in multi-objectivity, respectively. Both classes of fuzziness can be integrated into the relative preference set of each generation mix by using extension principle in fuzzy set theory. In the second phase based on the linguistic approximation technique, the relative preference set of each generation mix can be represented by natural language. The proposed method can realize an effective and flexible decision support for evaluating generation mixes. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method are demonstrated on a typical power system model.
For the purpose of embodying the community identity (CI) concept, we try to introduce five different methods, M1 to M5, i.e., the analytic hierarchy process (=M1), the fuzzy structural matrix model (=M2), the method utilizing a law of comparative judgment (=M3), the method of successive categories (=M4) and the method employing a law of categorical judgment (=M5), to give a community identifying element the quantitative weight which indicates the contribution degree of the element to clarify the CI idea. Using the psychological rating data derived from the surveys conducted in Nagano, those methods were tested to obtain weights for twenty-one elements. The test results revealed that 1) the weight values obtained by the above methods except M1 are highly correlated to each other with correlation coefficients lying in the interval between 0.943 and 0.996, 2)it can be said there are not much difference between weights derived from Ml and those from the remaining methods because of the correlation coefficients among them ranging from 0.782 to 0.932. Considering 1) and 2), it is concluded that M4 and M5 have advantage over the other methods because either methods require a simple survey of numerical rating for each element whereas the methods M1 through M3 need pairwise comparisons among elements which are exhausting for subjects.
The purpose of this paper is to propose an appropriate sensor arrangement of magnetometer sensing system for monitoring tongue point movements during speech. The system consists of a small permanent magnetic rod which is fixed on the tongue surface, and magnetometer sensors with two amorphous alloy cores. On the detection of the magnet's positions in the magnetic sensing system, tilting and lateral movements of the magnetic rod on the tongue cause errors which are serious problems on measuring articulatory movements. Several sensor arrangements were studied to reduce these errors by means of computer simulation. Experimental results showed that the errors can be effectively reduced by setting four sensors at each side of the jaw where the sensors detect positions and inclination angles of the magnetic rod. Experiments based on the simulation were also done on one point of the tongue surface, and characteristic patterns on the tongue articulatory movements were observed during several speech sounds.
The geographically large-scale nature of a power system necessitates the application of decentralized control, rather than centralized control. This paper deals with the output control of a power system, and proposes a design method of decentralized controllers, based on the design method of plant-variable-optimal LQI servo systems and the technique of model reduction. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through simulations.
This paper evaluates economics and energy saving characteristics of total systems which treat municipal refuse and utilize its contained energy. Investigated total systems are the following two systems: (1) System-A is composed of a municipal refuse incineration plant and a cogeneration system with a bleeder/condensate turbine power generation unit, and (2) System-B is composed of a pyrolysis furnace for treating the municipal refuse and a cogeneration system which is constructed by a combined cycle power generation unit using cleaned pyrolysis gas as its fuel gas. The followings were shown through a case study: (1) System-A is the better in economy and its energy saving characteristics is excellent, if it can be assumed that the total system is incorporated into a large district cooling and heating system (LDCHS) and that its maximum supply heat can all be used to supply base heat demand. (2) In case no LDCHS exists, the following results were obtained; (a) As for System-A, supplying both heat and electric energy is preferable from a comprehensive point of view instead of supplying only electric energy. (b) As for System-B, which has high power generation efficiency, supplying only electric energy is desirable instead of supplying heat energy as well. (c) Economics of System-B is better and energy saving characteristics is much better than System-A.