This paper proposes an optical proximity correction (OPC) using an Adjustable OPCed cell and genetic algorithms (GA) to achieve optimal OPC feature generation for the full-chip area at fast processing speeds. GA is an efficient optimization technique based on population genetics. In this approach, an Adjustable OPCed cell consists of two parts. The first part is the “fixed area”, which includes OPC feature data from a conventional OPC technique. The second part is the “adjustable area”, which is located in the peripheral regions of the cell and includes adjustable OPC variables. As the values of these variables are greatly influenced by neighboring cell patterns, the variables are quickly optimized by the GA after cell layout. The effectiveness of this approach, in terms of reduced times for accurate simulations and repeated modification of OPCed features, is demonstrated through computational experiments.
Recently, research on logistics caught more and more attention. One of the important issues on logistics system is to find optimal delivery routes with the least cost for products delivery. Numerous models have been developed for that reason. However, due to the diversity and complexity of practical problem, the existing models are usually not very satisfying to find the solution efficiently and convinently. In this paper, we treat a real-world logistics case with a company named ABC Co. ltd., in Kitakyusyu Japan. Firstly, based on the natures of this conveyance routing problem, as an extension of transportation problem (TP) and fixed charge transportation problem (fcTP) we formulate the problem as a minimum cost flow (MCF) model. Due to the complexity of fcTP, we proposed a priority-based genetic algorithm (pGA) approach to find the most acceptable solution to this problem. In this pGA approach, a two-stage path decoding method is adopted to develop delivery paths from a chromosome. We also apply the pGA approach to this problem, and compare our results with the current logistics network situation, and calculate the improvement of logistics cost to help the management to make decisions. Finally, in order to check the effectiveness of the proposed method, the results acquired are compared with those come from the two methods/ software, such as LINDO and CPLEX.
To analyze the causal relationships between thermal comfort and thermal sensation votes, this paper presents how conjoint analysis works in experimentation. The samples for the experimentation consisted of 1,584 (22 subjects x 9 conditions x 8 times) questionnaire data and the thermal sensations are voted for face, chest, hands, buttocks, and soles of the foot. To use conjoint analysis, the samples are preprocessed such that each thermal sensation vote is either OK or NG and the combination of OK and NG covers as variety as possible. Using SPSS for the votes, we have confirmed the lower body is more important than the upper body in controlling thermal comfort. The comparison with multi-regression analysis is also shown.
A nobel multi-agent-based system with the contract net protocol (CNP) for achieving distributed approach for power distribution network restoration is proposed. Agents in the proposed system are assigned to each area sectioned by switches, and exchange environmental information among them at all times. The information is used for constructing a overlay network of the CNP against network accidents. Parameters of CNP required for the robustness and effectiveness are optimized by the genetic algorithm (GA) in the operation phase. When a network accident occurs, the agents restore the power distribution service autonomously through the overlay network constructed by CNP. Simulation experiments indicate that the CNP allows the power distribution network to make effective strategy of the restoration by each agent cooperating.
Adequate response performance is required for the planning of a cooperative logistic network covering multiple enterprises, because this process needs a human expert's evaluation from many aspects. To satisfy this requirement, we propose an accurate model based on mixed integer programming for optimizing cooperative logistics networks where “round transportation” exists together with “depot transportation” including lower limit constraints of loading ratio for round transportation vehicles. Furthermore, to achieve interactive response performance, a dummy load is introduced into the model instead of integer variables. The experimental result shows the proposed method obtains an accurate solution within interactive response time.
This paper describes a mattress decision system based on users' characteristics. Generally, the comfortable bed means what sleeping habits and body pressure keep a good condition. The term “good condition” is that sleeping habits are close to the standing position and the wide body pressure. Therefore, the proposed system makes use of these as the evaluation indexes. In the past, they have been actually measuring that sleeping habits and body pressure. However, this way takes a lot of time and physical load. Consequently, we propose a way to predict users' sleeping habits and body pressures using neural networks.
This paper describes trend analyses of patent applicants and a relevant patent retrieval technique using the trends for higher retrieval accuracy. This method focuses on the difference of the applicants of a query patent and the patent invalidating the query invention. First, we analyze trends of patent applicants from three viewpoints: the attributes of patent documents, the rate of shared terms and the difficulty of relevant patent retrieval. The results show that 21% of the patents invalidating a query have common applicants with their corresponding query and that it is much more difficult to retrieve relevant patents with different applicants from the query. Then, we use four relevant patent retrieval methods to evaluate each behavior of the retrieval accuracy from a viewpoint of the difference of patent applicants. The result shows that the behavior of each method depends on the difference of patent applicants. Finally, we propose a technique to combine relevant patent retrieval methods by using the difference of the behavior of retrieval accuracy in each retrieval method. This combining technique contributes to improving the retrieval accuracy of relevant patents with different applicants from a query.
The purpose of our research is to clarify information processing functions of living organisms by neural networks using pulse-type hardware neuron models and applying pulse-type hardware neural networks to engineered models. It is known that locomotion such as walking by a living organism is generated and transited by CPG (Central Pattern Generator) in the central nervous system. We investigate a pulse-type hardware CPG model using coupled oscillator composed of pulse-type hardware neuron models. A CPG model is need to generate and control quadruped locomotion. In this paper, we describe generation and transition of oscillation patterns, corresponding to quadruped locomotion patterns. As a result, it is shown that generation and transition of oscillation patterns are possible by giving external inputs of one pulse to the CPG model.
Today, various real-time services, like audio/videoconferencing, and telemedicine, are being deployed over the Internet. This requires the network to provide the guarantee of the service provided to the receiver. The needs of the applications are specified in terms of the Quality of Service (QoS) metrics like desired bandwidth, response time, loss rate, expected reliability etc. Support for QoS needs to be provided at each of the layers of the protocol stack for overall efficiency in network utilization. Routing algorithms supporting QoS differentiation differ from traditional routing algorithms in that, in QoS routing, the path from the source to the destination needs to satisfy multiple constraints simultaneously, while in conventional routing, routing decisions are made based only on a single metric such as cost or delay. However, it is well known that path selection subject to two or more independent additive metrics is NP-complete, which means that there is no efficient(polynomial) exact solution for the general multi-constrained path(MCP) selection problems. In this paper, we describe the outline of distributed QoS routing problems and propose a mean field annealing(MFA) heuristic algorithm to solve the MCP problem.
The problem of decentralized robust model following for a class of large scale interconnected systems with uncertainties is considered. Here, the bounds of uncertainties and interconnections are assumed to contain some unknown constants. For such a class of uncertain large scale systems, a class of decentralized adaptive sliding mode controllers is proposed by combining sliding mode controller with some adaptive laws which estimate unknown constants. The proposed controllers can guarantee that the tracking error between each subsystem and local reference model decreases asymptotically to zero and do not need the bounds of interconnection and the number of subsystems. Finally, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the validity of the results.
In this paper, three parameters such as position and size of an object inserted between the sensor and temperature in the equipment are estimated by using the electrical and ultrasonic integrated sensor. The integrated sensor consists of a pair of piezoelectric ceramics. Propagation time is measured by a pair of piezoelectric ceramics, and conductance between a pair of piezoelectric ceramics is also measured by the electrode on the surface of piezoelectric ceramic. Therefore, electrical and ultrasonic properties are obtained by the proposed sensor. In the experiment, gypsum as the object was inserted between a pair of piezoelectric ceramics which were arranged inside the cylindrical equipment filled with saline water of 0.1% concentration, and conductance and propagation time were measured by a pair of piezoelectric ceramics at temperature of 20°C, 25°C, and 30°C. Three kinds of gypsum which have the diameters of 35mm, 50mm and 65mm as the object were prepared. The position and diameter of gypsum and temperature in the equipment were estimated from propagation time and conductance measured by the integrated sensor.
This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.
Some techniques for calibration of Magnetic MoCap system were discussed in this prompt report. We developed a Magnetic MoCap system for hands and capture some movements of right hand with this system. The measured data were calibrated and reproduced as a 3D-CG with VRML and MatLab. The CG shows a good reproduction of a hand's movement.