電気学会論文誌C(電子・情報・システム部門誌)
Online ISSN : 1348-8155
Print ISSN : 0385-4221
ISSN-L : 0385-4221
133 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の43件中1~43を表示しています
特集:電磁波の技術と科学および信号処理
特集論文
<情報通信工学>
  • 岡野 好伸, 荻野 哲, 石川 弘二
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 431-440
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Recently, wireless telecommunication devices have been used with worldwide spread of the mobile phone, wireless local-area networks (WLAN) and UHF-Radio frequency identification (UHF-RFID). Therefore, EMI problems have been so serious. In the case of indoor use, wireless telecommunication environment is deteriorated by multiplex reflection interference. That interference has to be controlled for improving wireless communication circumstance. Especially, it is thought that the improvement of the multi-path environment is indispensable to secure reliability in UHF-RFID system.
    In this paper, ultra thin microwave absorber as an improvement technology of the multi-path environment for UHF-RFID system is described. Additionally, a transparent feature is given to this absorber. Because the microwave absorber should not increase the blind area of the observation camera in the region for which UHF-RFID system is used (around the entrance gate of offices or warehouses). In an actual warehouse, the verified result about the effectiveness of tag identification probability improvement with this absorber is also presented.
<システム・計測・制御>
  • 生田 顕, 小川 仁士, 折本 寿子
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 441-449
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    The specific signal in the actual electromagnetic wave frequently shows some very complex fluctuation forms of non-Gaussian type owing to natural, social and human factors. Furthermore, the observed data are inevitably contaminated by the background noise of arbitrary distribution type. In these situations, it is often desirable to estimate several evaluation quantities such as the peak value, the amplitude probability distribution, the average crossing rate, the pulse spacing and duration distributions, etc. of the specific signal. Without losing their mutual relationships, it is indispensable to estimate the probability distribution or the original wave fluctuation form itself of the specific signal based on the observed noise data. In this study, static and dynamic signal processing methods for estimating a specific signal with the existence of background noise of non-Gaussian distribution forms are proposed. More specifically, by paying attention to the power state variable for a specific signal in the electromagnetic environment, which exhibits complex probability distribution forms, a new type of signal processing method for noise cancellation is proposed. In the case of considering the power state variable, a physical mechanism of contamination by a background noise can be reflected in the noise cancellation method by using an additive property between the specific signal and background noise. The proposed method positively utilizes the additive property of power state variable in the derivation process of the noise cancellation method. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical method is experimentally confirmed by applying it to an estimation problem in actual electromagnetic environment.
  • 君島 正幸, 中山 喜和, 古神 義則
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 450-463
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Technologies of the small size reflect-meter constructed in form of RF functional systems in package (SiPs) for RF testers are described. As primary concerns, focusing on the directivity and dynamic range of the reflect-meter performance, we propose the construction and the core circuit topologies to realize a very small reflect-meter SiP that satisfies functions of the vector network analysis for RF testers. The reflect-meter features a very small size of less than 1/50 compared to our conventional hybrid form reflect-meter, and having good performance for RF testers.
 
特集:電子・情報・システム分野の最先端技術
特集解説
<電子デバイス>
  • 松永 高治, 服部 渉
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 465-470
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    This paper describes the first results on transmission performances of newly developed high power amplifier millimeter wave 3-stage GaN_MMICs (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) on a Si substrate and a small size wireless power amplifier module equipped with the GaN_MMIC. The high power type of GaN_MMIC and the voltage gain type are fabricated, and both MMICs show over 28-dBm output power at 38GHz band. The power amplifier module including the MMICs and bias circuits exhibits lower than -34dBc of adjacent channel leakage ratio at 25-dBm output power and QPSK-operation. Moreover, the power module exhibits 16QAM 600-Mbps transmission rate at 25-dBm output power.
  • 湯浅 新治
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 471-478
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    A magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) consisting of a thin insulating layer (a tunnel barrier) sandwiched between two ferromagnetic electrodes exhibits the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effect due to spin-dependent electron tunneling. Since the discovery of room-temperature TMR in the mid-1990s, MTJs with an amorphous aluminum oxide (Al-O) tunnel barrier have been studied extensively. Such MTJs exhibit a magnetoresistance (MR) ratio of several tens of percent at room temperature and have been applied to magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) and the read heads of hard disk drives. MTJs with MR ratios substantially higher than 100%, however, are desired for next-generation spintronic devices. In 2001, first-principle theories predicted that the MR ratios of epitaxial Fe/MgO/Fe MTJs with a crystalline MgO(001) barrier would be over 1000% due to the coherent tunneling of specific Bloch states. In 2004, MR ratios of about 200% were obtained for MgO-based MTJs. MTJs with a CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB structure were developed for practical application and found to have MR ratios of above 200% and other practical properties. This article reviews the physics of magnetoresistance in MTJs and the application of MTJs to various spintronic devices such as magnetic sensors, spin-transfer-torque MRAM with perpendicular magnetization, and novel microwave devices.
<光・量子デバイス>
  • 熊谷 寛
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 479-483
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    A new approach to the fabrication of multilayer mirrors on an atomic scale at soft x-ray wavelengths is desired to overcome serious problems regarding scattering loss at the rough surface and interface of the multilayer. In this review, resent progress regarding novel approaches utilizing atomic layer epitaxy to the fabrication of multilayer structures for soft x-ray wavelengths is detailed. These novel approaches are expected to solve the above-mentioned problems and then take the place of conventional sputtering methods because of their control performance of the surface on an atomic scale through their self-limiting functions.
  • 菜嶋 茂喜, 小川 雄一
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 484-489
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    We introduce the recent topics concerning the 1D- and 2D- plasmonic crystals, i.e., a wire grid polarizer and a metal mesh device at terahertz frequencies. We show the remarkable increase in polarization characteristics on a freestanding double-layered wire grid polarizer. We also show the performance of metal mesh devices for biosensing application.
  • 大越 昌幸, 井上 成美
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 490-493
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    A transparent, hard silica glass (SiO2) layer was formed on a conventional protective coat made of silicone ([SiO(CH3)2]n) on a polycarbonate plate by the 157nm F2 laser-induced photochemical modification of silicone into SiO2. An optimum laser irradiation time of the F2 laser was found to form a crack-free SiO2 layer. The high optical transparency of the samples in the visible light region remained unchanged after the F2 laser irradiation. In the Taber abrasion test, the SiO2 layer markedly reduced the number of scratches, resulting in a low haze value. The haze values of the samples also depend on the thickness of the silicone protective coat underneath the SiO2 protective layer. As a result, the difference of haze value was successfully reduced to 1.2%, compared with these of the nonirradiated sample and a bare polycarbonate plate of approximately 3.5 and 46%, respectively, which is comparable to the case of a bare silica glass of approximately 0.9%. In addition, the thickness of the SiO2 protective layer was estimated to be approximately 0.44μm for the 30-s laser irradiation by immersing the samples in 1 wt % hydrogen fluoride aqueous solution and measuring the depth using a surface profilometer.
<電子回路>
<情報処理>
<通信>
  • 辻 秀一, 澤本 潤, 清尾 克彦, 北上 眞二
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 520-531
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    By development of sensor and communication technology, M2M (Machine-to-Machine) systems has been gaining much attention recently. A M2M system which connects various sensors and information systems with communication network has a large possibility of application in all fields, such as industry field of manufacturing and agriculture, social field of traffic and energy, and home field of health care and safety control. However, in order to build and deploy M2M systems, there is a major difficulty for engineers in assembling and unifying multiple technologies from various layers. This article describes the trend of M2M technology, such as M2M application integration, M2M framework, M2M technology of network and platform, and M2M technology standardization, based on the activity result of the “M2M Technology Investigation Committees" (2010.10-2012.9) under Technical Committees of Communications in IEEJ.
<医用生体>
  • 湯ノ口 万友, 塗木 淳夫, 大岩 孝輔, 玉利 陽三
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 532-535
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    The magnetic stimulation is the way of stimulating the nervous and muscle tissue with the induced eddy current induced by the stimulation coil and is widely used in the evaluation of the nervous system and the field of the exercise physiology. It is more difficult to focally and deeply stimulate with magnetic stimulation. In this study, we used the 5 shell uniform head model and estimated the eddy current distribution by calculation. As the result, it is shown that the boundary between tissues which have different conductivity affects eddy current distribution.
  • 保坂 良資
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 536-539
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Many wireless communication systems were developed for medical applications. In early stage, the systems are situated a sort of experimental system. For example, radio capsule is developed as sample picking system in human digestive organs. One of radio telemeter is also implanted in dog. In later stage, the wireless systems are situated as information communication system like GPS, PHS and RFID. Wireless systems in medical scenes are effective to maintain medical quality level.
  • 濱本 和彦
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 540-543
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Recently, 3D is being popular. 3D environment, especially, immersive virtual environment, which provides a large 3D screen or surrounds people by multiple large screens causes virtual (or simulator) sickness. Therefore, many researches have been done in this field, but the method is not standardized. The standardization is strongly required in this research filed. In this paper, novel researches about virtual or simulator sickness are introduced and their evaluation methods are analyzed and explicated. Finally, the standardization of the method for virtual sickness research is attempted. The guideline of the virtual sickness experiment is proposed based on this standardization results.
  • 高橋 宏知, 神保 泰彦
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 544-549
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    The Moore's law predicting that the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles every 18 months since 1970's has been underlying industrial innovation. In the field of neuroscience, a similar trend is observed for the number of simultaneously recorded neuronal cells, which has doubled every 7.4 years since the late 1950's. Neural engineering has emerged from the confluence of these two technological trends and has significantly promoted a number of progresses in our understanding of the brain and the developments of neural prosthesis. In the present paper, we introduce how innovative instrumentation engineering and information technologies have brought benefits in our daily physiological experiments and sometimes led to major discoveries in a discontinuous manner. Furthermore, increasing capacity to acquire and analyze massive data may change not only treatments of neural data, but also scientific approaches in neuroscience.
<情報システム>
<メタボリズム社会・環境システム>
<システム>
<制御>
<知覚情報>
  • 寺田 賢治
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 620-624
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    As well known, human sensing is useful for our life. But, the development of the human sensing system is not easy, because the shape and the movement of human are complicated; the environment of obtaining image is not always constant and so on. We have developed some methods of identifying individuals using facial image, counting passing people, observing of human behave and so on. In this paper, human smart sensing and its applications are introduced. In addition, examples of application are shown.
  • 高崎 正也
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 625-629
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Recently, haptic display attracts attentions in some fields such as virtual reality, human interface and so on. Typically, kinesthesia and tactile sensation are indicated separately, they need their own suitable actuator specifications. Many types of haptic display devices have been proposed and developed so far under this situation. This manuscript presents recent haptic displays as history of device development and categorization of principles. Haptic sensors have been also considered to acquire haptic information or to realize haptic interaction between human and objects. These devices can perform as realistic haptic sensation for certain application. In the next period, these proposals and trials will contribute evolution in new fields like touch screen operation. For such evolution, interaction and cooperation among researchers surrounding human haptic sensation will be important.
  • 青木 義満
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 630-634
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    This paper introduces fusional sensing technologies via multiple sensory perceptions. As actual examples, human detection and tracking system for human behavior recognition is introduced. EEG measurement and analysis methods are also described as an example real system which is titled “Visualization of the Mind Status using the EEG”. Through the review of these example, current and future direction of this field is discussed.
論文
<生体医工学・福祉工学>
  • 内藤 玄造, 吉田 塁, 沼田 崇志, 小川 雄太郎, 小谷 潔, 神保 泰彦
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 635-641
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a system to obtain information from the brain signal to control computers. P300 and motor imagery task of Electroencephalogram (EEG) are mainly used features for BCI. However, BCI with P300 classifies only two states and features of motor imagery task are too obscure to be classified easily. Therefore, we propose a method to increase the number of classified states with high accuracy by mixed signal processing for P300 and motor imaginary task. BCI using P300 and motor imaginary task is going to have more bit rate than conventional BCI. We design a experiment which gives 4 classes data as control, P300, and P300 during motor imagery of right or left hand. First, we confirm that P300 appear during motor imagery task. In addition, we examine the best method for feature extraction. Finally, we classify 4 classes by multi-class Support Vector Machines, and show the efficacy of mixed signal which contain P300 and motor imagery.
<システム・計測・制御>
  • 北上 眞二, 金子 洋介, 阿部 亨, 小泉 寿男, 菅沼 拓夫
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 642-651
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    In a typical office building, the energy-saving of lighting is an important problem because the lighting accounts for 40% of the total electric power consumption in the entire building. However, the lighting affects the amenity of an office space, and inappropriate energy-saving of the lighting decreases the productivity of office workers. Therefore, a lighting control system for the office building must achieve the appropriate energy-saving based on careful and accurate control of light dimming. This paper proposes a lighting control method, which saves the power consumption of lighting with keeping the accuracy in light dimming. In the proposed method, to control the lighting optimally, the lighting influence matrix, which associates the dimming rate pattern of light sources with the illuminance distribution on desks in an office space, is introduced, and a dimming inverse problem is solved by using this matrix. The dimming rate pattern obtained by the proposed method can minimize the power consumption of lighting while maintaining the target illuminance in the area where the office workers seat themselves at their desks. We implemented an energy saving lighting control system based on the proposed method and carried out evaluation experiments by applying this system to an actual office space. Experimental results show that the proposed method increases the evaluation index, which combines energy-saving ratio and dimming accuracy, by 9% compared to conventional energy-saving operations.
  • Mohd Khairi Bin Mohamed Nor, 大久保 重範
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 652-662
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    This paper presents the design of nonlinear servo system using fuzzy method. The idea behind this control method is to divide the operating region of nonlinear system into collection of local linear servo control system and apply fuzzy method for calculation the control input. The control input of each local linear servo system is calculated using Davison-Smith method and Hikita pole assignment method. We can prove that the all of states of the fuzzy servo system are bounded and output errors converge to zero using Lyapunov method. The simulations are done to nonlinear mass-spring-damper system to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
  • 平田 弘志, 水嶋 亮直, 大内 茂人, 小谷 斉之
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 663-671
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Recently, the research of humanoid robotics is very popular. However, few humanoid robots usually have the tiptoe due to complicated mechanism and control, etc. though the degrees of freedom of the joint increase by appending a tiptoe to the robot foot and a leg construction with the high movement ability can be expected. In this paper, an autonomous attitude stabilization control based on a repetitive bending and stretching movement with standing on the tiptoe is proposed. Namely, the control performance is verified under a narrow situation of the stable range by using a tiptoe of one-legged robot. When a one-legged robot moves each joint by using the tiptoe without an attitude stabilization planning, the ZMP (Zero-Moment Point) of robot goes over the boundary of a contact surface often. As the result, the robot falls down due to the occurrence of an unstable situation.
    The compensation of ZMP by using a force sensor set up the ankle is a general method in conventional humanoid robots. However, the center of gravity and ZMP are calculated from motion data because providing a force sensor for the verification of movements using a tiptoe is so difficult. The autonomous stabilization is achieved by controlling an imaginary inverted pendulum (IIP) that passes through the center of gravity from the robot tiptoe. In other words, the VSS adaptive control suppresses as much as possible the disturbance concerning a change of the center of gravity caused by the robot movement. The I-PD control system is designed to both joints of an ankle and a knee, and two reference angles of sinusoid wave are given to their joints without inverse kinematics in an experiment. Simultaneously, VSS adaptive control input for the attitude stabilization is given to a tiptoe joint. Finally, the validity of the proposed system is demonstrated through some simulations and experiments.
<メディア情報,ユーザ・インタフェース>
  • Sandy Martedi, Maki Sugimoto, Hideo Saito, Bruce Thomas
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 672-679
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    In this paper we propose a feature-based alignment method for visualizing geographical content on a movable paper map using non-calibrated projector-camera pair. In order to project correctly aligned geographical content on a movable paper map, we detect two kinds of features: printed features and projected features on a paper map. First, we print landmark points as map features on the paper map for registration purpose. We then project landmark points onto the paper map. We then detect these printed and projected features simultaneously. The transformation from the projector coordinate system to the image coordinate system is estimated using the feature correspondences. This transformation is used to warp the geographical content before the corrected projection. In succeeding frames, the features are tracked in order to update the transformation. We evaluated our method against the motion of the paper map, the camera and the projector with average projection error of 9.5 pixels.
<音声画像処理・認識>
  • 江田 孝治
    2013 年 133 巻 3 号 p. 680-687
    発行日: 2013/03/01
    公開日: 2013/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    The purpose of this study is to propose a new creation method of high-resolution images using DCT. Images enlarged with image interpolation method blur due to the lack of high-frequency components. Super-resolution method is important in improving the sense of resolution of such images. In the proposed method, high-frequency components of images enlarged with bi-linear interpolation are restored to refine the enlarged images. Restoring high-frequency components is implemented by each focused block on the enlarged image. Since the high-frequency components of the focused blocks are lacked, they are searched from a database by means of DCT sign index. Here, the database is learned from multiple nature description images in advance. In addition, the DCT sign index used for search is generated from signs of DCT coefficient of the low-frequency components of the focused blocks. The proposed method made fast search of the database possible with the use of the DCT sign index. From many simulation results, the proposed method is proved effective.
 
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