THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Online ISSN : 1348-6276
Print ISSN : 0387-7973
ISSN-L : 0387-7973
Current issue
Showing 1-4 articles out of 4 articles from the selected issue
Short Articles
  • Keisuke Yamamoto, Tomoko Ikegami
    Type: Short Article
    2021 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 1-9
    Published: 2021
    Released: October 16, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 02, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Yamamoto and Ikegami (2019) hypothesized that third parties infer the helper’s motive based on the naive self-presentation theory and demonstrated the effect of the observers’ presence on motive inference. This study aimed to replicate this effect and provide convincing evidence for this hypothesis by manipulating the observers’ gender. We conducted a questionnaire experiment with 277 undergraduates using scenarios of helping experiences. Similar to Yamamoto and Ikegami (2019), the results showed that self-presentational motives were more likely to be attributed to helpers in the presence versus absence of observers. Importantly, the results showed that self-presentational motives were more likely to be attributed to helpers when there was an opposite gender versus a same-gender observer. However, there was no difference in motive inference between the conditions when there was a mere opposite-gender observer versus an opposite-gender observer with whom the helper was in love. The effects of the observers’ presence and their gender on motive inference were consistently confirmed across the two types of helping scenes. This study successfully provided convincing evidence for the above hypothesis.

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  • Tetsushi Tanibe, Kaori Karasawa
    Type: Short Article
    2021 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 10-21
    Published: 2021
    Released: October 16, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: October 02, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    We examined how people attribute cause and responsibility for harm caused by artificial intelligence (AI). The participants read a vignette about a pedestrian fatality involving a self-driving car and allocated cause and responsibility to the car manufacturer and/or the user. We found that those who attributed cause to the AI also attributed cause to the manufacturer and user, and those who perceived autonomous machines to have mental capacities such as intention attributed cause to the manufacturer. These results indicate that people do not perceive AI as an agent that acts independently from humans, even though they think that AI is autonomous. We also found that those who attributed cause to the manufacturer and user also attributed responsibility to them. Moreover, those who attributed cause to the AI believed that the manufacturer should solve the problem. Thus, people presumed that the manufacturer was responsible for solving the problem, even though it was not responsible for causing the problem. Taken together, this study illustrates the importance of examining people’s attitudes when developing rules relating to AI.

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Short Notes
  • Ryosuke Yokoi, Kazuya Nakayachi
    Type: Short Note
    2021 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 22-27
    Published: 2021
    Released: October 16, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 22, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    This study tests the effect of moral value similarity on trust in autonomous cars (ACs). We adopt two moral values: utilitarianism (promoting a greater good) and deontology (condemning deliberate harm). Previous research found that utilitarianism similarity had a significant effect on trust in ACs, whereas deontology similarity did not. The research also revealed that when participants preferred a deontological action, ACs were less trusted than a human driver, even when the ACs performed the same action as the participants. We investigated the replicability of these findings and whether distrust in ACs arises from the ACs’ inability to sympathize with potential victims. Our online experiment (N=609) found that both utilitarian and deontology similarities positively influenced trust in ACs. Mediation analysis also indicated that when the driver was an AC, the participants recognized that the AC lacked the capacity to feel sympathy, thereby decreasing trust in it. The paper also discusses the theoretical implications of our findings.

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  • Mai Shimoda, Shunsuke Shimoda
    Type: Short Note
    2021 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 28-33
    Published: 2021
    Released: October 16, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: October 02, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    This study examined how self-affirmation influences people’s intention to improve health behaviors after reading messages about health risks from physical inactivity. A usual physical activity level, measured by a smartphone app, was used as a moderator. Participants (103 Japanese undergraduates) reported their usual physical activity (average walking and running distances) measured by a health management app. They then completed a writing task, in which they affirmed (or did not affirm) important personal values. After the task, they read health risk messages about physical inactivity and reported their intention to increase their daily physical activity. The results revealed that participants with low physical activity levels displayed a significantly stronger intention to increase their daily physical activity when they self-affirmed than when they did not. Conversely, participants with high levels of physical activity did not show a significant effect of self-affirmation. These results suggest that the effect of self-affirmation on improving physical inactivity is moderated by the level of usual physical activity, highlighting the significance of the relevance of the health messages.

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