β-Glucan is a major component of the cell walls and pathogen-associated microbial patterns of fungi. We previously reported the presence of an antibody which reacts to β-glucan, anti-β-glucan (BG) antibody, in human sera. In livestock and domestic pets, the antibody's response to fungal cell wall β-glucan is little understood. In this study, we examined the existence and reactivity of anti-BG antibody in various animal species. We demonstrated the presence of the anti-BG antibody in each animal's serum. Individual differences in the titer existed. The antibody was highly reactive to Candida solubilized cell wall β-glucan (CSBG) while reacting little to grifolan (GRN) from Grifola frondosa. This suggested that the anti-BG antibody interacted with fungal cell wall β-glucan and participated in the immune-response to pathogenic fungi.
Aspergillosis is an important mycosis caused primarily by Aspergillus fumigatus and its relatives. The genus Emericella is a teleomorph related to the Aspergillus section Nidulantes. The typical anamorphic stage species in this genus is Aspergillus nidulans, which is sometimes a significant agent in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients. The mortality rate of osteomyelitis in CGD patients due to A. nidulans ( E. nidulans ) is very high compared to that due to A. fumigatus. Moreover, two Emericella species ( E. nidulans and E. quadrilineata ) from clinical specimens exhibit different sensitivities against several antifungal drugs. In aspergillosis, correct species identification is important for antifungal therapy. We attempted to develop rapid and specific molecular discrimination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods in the principal pathogenic Emericella species, and succeeded in establishing species-specific primers corresponding to the hydrophobin gene. These primers discriminate E. nidulans and E. quadrilineata rapidly and specifically. These methods and primers make it possible to diagnose etiological agents in aspergillosis quickly and easily.