Experimental carried out on specimens of zinc-oxide powder were described below Ferthermore, the distribution of strain within the crystallite (<εL2>1/2, ε1=ΔL/L) and the crystallite particle sizes were determined by the Stokes-Corrected Fourier Analysis of the X-ray peaks. The specimens were prepared by grinding with a ball mill and a vibration mill equipped with either a stainless steel special steel vessel. There were 5 peaks in the ESR spectrum : A peak corresponding to the dangling bonds, B″ peak corresponding to the oxigens combined with the dangling bonds, C peak corresponding to unknown chemical species, C′ peak corresponding to the broken bonds formed on the cleavage surface of the crystallite, B′ peak corresponding to the exygens combined with the broken bonds. The C peak existed in the original material, and decrecreased with grinding. As the grinding proceeded the A, B' and B″ peaks increased. These oxygens colud be desorbed by heating to 300°C. The optical absorption increased by grinding and diminished by heating to 500°C would correspond to these oxygens, and that increased by heating to 900°C correspond to F-center. The case of the special steel vessel, when charge were low, the peak B' as well as the peak A was marked, and during the initial stage of grinding remarkable maximum values, foldings, and the steep rise were observed in the strain distribution curves in the vicinity of the surface. In the case of the stainless steel vessel, especially when the charge was low, B′/B″ and the strength of the B peak was less than that of the special steel vessel. The granules of the specimens were more solid with the special steel vessel, while, those with the stainless steel vessel were finer. It was concidered that those differences due to the difference of the catalytic effects of the material consisting of mill in contact with the crystallite surface on combining the oxygens with the broken bonds.
The leaching behavior of copper and triphenyltin (TPT) from several antifouling paints containing cuprous oxide and triphenyltin compounds has been studied. The triphenyltin compounds used as antifoulant were triphenyltin fluoride (TPTF), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTOH) and triphenyltin chloride (TPTC). After the antifouling paints were coated on the fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) test panels (2×70×150mm, 210cm2), they were immersed in seawater at Maizuru Bay, Kyoto Prefecture, from December 1987 to June 1989. Then, leaching rates of copper and TPT from antifouling paint films were measured by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD), respectively. From this study, it was found that the initial leaching rates of copper and TPT were 75-100 and 0.5-151μg/cm2/day, respectively. Leaching rates after 18 months of the immersion were 20-30 and 0.8-1.8μg/cm2, day for copper and TPT, respectively.
Syntheses of 3-Mono- and 3,3-diarylphthalides with various substituents were carried out. The effects of the substituents on the visible spectra in acetic acid and the chromopheric systems were investigated on the basis of the PPP-MO calculation. 3-Monoarylphthalides were prepared by the condensation of 5-dimethylamino-2-formylbenzoic acid with heterocycles or m-dimethylaminobenzoic acid with benzaldehydes. The monoaryl-phthalides were then oxidized to 2-benzoyl-5-dimethylaminobenzoic acids, which were subjected to a reaction with heterocycles (R-H) in acetic anhydride to give 3,3-diarylphthalides. Two absorption bands were observed in each visible spectrum of a 3,3-diarylphthalide in 95% acetic acid. The two bands were assigned as x- and y-bands of tri-phenylmethane chromophores by the PPP-MO calculation.
In this study the effect of damages of a white coating film on its contamination resistance was discussed. It was recognized the contamination of a damaged white coating film was affected by the degree of the damage, temperature, and humidity. The cause of the contamination was investigated with Raman spectroscopy, electron microscope, and etc.. Many small holes were observed on the damaged coating film. These holes were the traces of TiO2 pigments which were pulled out from the film by a damage like polishing. In the holes, Carbon, Si, Si-Al, and Si-Al-Fe were detected. The contamination of the damaged coating film was caused by the attachment of substances in the atmosphere around the holes of the damaged coating film.