In the present study we isolated and identified two mixtures of fatty acid esters of β-sitosterol glucoside from soybeans and its fermented product, tempe. The mixtures of glucolipids occurring in soybeans and tempe are unseparable and possess the following structures: sitosterol-3-O-β-D-(6′-O-palmitoyl/-linoleoyl)- and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-(6′-O-palmitoyl/-stearoyl)-glucopyranoside, respectively. Since tempe constituents show antitumor activity, we tested these glucolipids against mouse myeloma cells (tumor cells). The tempe glucolipid mixture showed higher inhibition (95.3%) at the 50μg/ml concentration than the soybean one. The maximum activity of the soybean glucolipid mixture was (96%) at 100μg/ml.
The flavonoid quercetin was assessed for its chemopreventive property in Sarcoma-180(S-180)-induced ascites tumors. The flavonoid was administered in the diet at 2% level to S-180-bearing mice, and the lipid and lipoprotein profile was studied after the treatment. The plasma cholesterol levels increased in the S-180-bearing mice, with the increase attributed to LDL and VLDL; whereas HDL showed a decrease in the S-180-bearing animals. However on administration of quercetin there was a significant decrease in the cholesterol (free, total and ester) and lipoprotein levels (LDL and VLDL) with a corresponding increase in HDL cholesterol. The cholesterol levels of S-180 ascites fluid were also decreased in the quercetin-treated S-180 tumor.
Feeding of gallic acid elevated the hepatic levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase, whereas NADPH-mediated microsomal lipid peroxidation was found to be unaltered. However, in lungs, besides a significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) and GPx, there was an inhibition of enzymatic lipid peroxidation in post-mitochondrial supernatant. On the other hand, propylgallate increased the hepatic GPx and GSH as well as inhibited hepatic microsomal and pulmonary lipid peroxidation. It seems that propylgallate is a better antioxidant than gallic acid since unlike gallic acid it protects both liver and lungs from the damaging action of the free radical-mediated process of lipid peroxidation.
The influence of the nutritional status on the antioxidant defence system and on the mitochondrial respiratory functions of rat kidney and liver was studied. For that purpose, the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, the total glutathione and the respiration rates of states 3 and 4, the respiratory control ratio, and ADP/O ratio were measured before and after 2 and 4 days of starvation. The behaviour of the enzymes was not uniform. Only the liver glutathione peroxidase decreased by about 18% at second day of starvation, whereas all other enzymes in liver and kidney increased or remained unchanged. All mitochondrial parameters studied remained unaffected by starvation except the moderately reduced state 3 respiration and respiratory control ratio in liver mitochondria. We conclude from our experimental data that the enzymatic antioxidative status is of minor importance for the assumed vulnerability of kidney and liver after short-term starvation.
Aqueous extracts of Emblica officinalis and Chyavanaprash, an indigenous drug preparation in which Emblica officinalis is a major ingredient, were found to inhibit 20-methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma and to increase the life span of the animals. Oral administration of Emblica (10mg/mice) and Chyavanaprash (50mg/mice) extracts produced a 75% reduction in the development of sarcoma. The aqueous extract of Emblica was also found to inhibit the activation and mutagenicity of 2-acetamidofluorene (2-AAF) as well as that of direct-acting mutagens N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and 4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine (4-NPDA). The extract was found to inhibit microsomal P-450 enzyme, aniline hydroxylase. The activity of the extract may be mainly related to its oxygen radical-scavenging activity as well as to inhibition of Phase-I enzymes.
We investigated the relationship between plasma levels of fibronectin and other acute-phase reactant proteins such as C-reactive protein, alpha-1 antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin in children with severe septicemia. The study included 33 Septicemic patients and 10 normal children. Mean plasma fibronectin level was significantly lower in patients on admission (204.7±57.3mg/dl), and was higher after recovery (349.3±89mg/dl), than in normal children (300.2±65mg/dl). No significant difference was found between the mean plasma fibronectin levels of patients with and without meningitis. After the recovery, fibronectin correlated positively with age. No correlation was found between plasma fibronectin and C-reactive protein, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, or alpha-1 antitrypsin levels at any stage of the disease. We concluded that fibronectin has no modulating effect on acute-phase responses of these proteins in severe septicemia.
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) may contribute to inflammation in multiple ways, including the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This provides a basis for a plausible and testable hypothesis by which inflammation and the disease might be related; that is, the levels of ROS generated by inflammatory phagocytes might be dependent upon the type of disease. Alveolar macrophages were prepared from 25 lung cancer patients, 58.7±7.51 years of age (mean±SD). Alveolar macrophages from 12 patients, 45.3±14.6 years of age, with nonmalignant lung diseases were also studied. Production of oxygen radical species was higher in AMs from the malignant lobe of lung cancer patients than in those from the disease-free lobe. However, the levels in AMs from the disease-free lobe were comparable to the levels in AMs from patients with nonmalignant lung diseases. There was an increase in hydrogen peroxide formation in the cells from malignant lobe of lung cancer patients compared with that in those from the disease-free lobe (38.4±4.16 vs. 26.9±2.94nmol/mg). The formation in the cells from patients with nonmalignant lung diseases was found to be 18.0±1.19nmol/mg protein. In the presence of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, the formation in the cells from malignant lobe of lung cancer patients increased compared with that from the disease-free lobe (63.9±7.65 vs. 34.3±4.95nmol/mg protein), and the formation in the cells from patients with nonmalignant lung diseases was 42.5±5.03nmol/mg protein. The enormous increase in O2- and H2O2 production in malignancy needs further investigation for its diagnostic and prognostic values.