The pathophysiology of hypertension or stroke is associated with an excess of ROS generation in the vascular system, and results in induction of various pathological cascades of cerebrovascular damage. We have demonstrated that electron spin resonance methods using a spin trap or spin probe will be useful for understanding redox status under conditions of oxidative stress in the spontaneously hypertensive rat or stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat brain. We have used electron spin resonance imaging and noninvasive L-band electron spin resonance to characterize the higher degree of brain oxidative stress in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat than in the Wistar-Kyoto rat brain, and the lower extent of oxidative stress in the spontaneously hypertensive rat than in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat brain. Indeed, we may be able to confirm propofol medium-chain triglyceride/long-chain triglyceride (MCT/LCT) as neuroprotective anesthesia and crocetin as antioxidant food factor against human stroke after screening for antioxidant properties in stroke models such as stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. Thus, our electron spin resonance biomedical application suggests that it could be used to assess antioxidant effects on oxidative stress in the brain using spontaneously hypertensive rat and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. We hope that further advances in the instrumentation used for electron spin resonance imaging and the development of optimized nontoxic spin probes will make this technology even more promising for novel clinical prediction or noninvasive diagnosis of human stroke. After screening drugs or foods for antioxidant property using in vitro or in vivo electron spin resonance assessment, it will be possible to find and develop novel drugs or food factors with such properties for the prevention of stroke in the near future.
Recently, the biological roles of lipid peroxidation products have received a great deal of attention not only for elucidating pathological mechanisms but also for practical clinical applications as biomarkers. In the last 50 years, lipid peroxidation has been the subject of extensive studies from the viewpoints of mechanisms, dynamics, product analysis, involvement in diseases, inhibition, and biological signaling. Lipid hydroperoxides are formed as major primary products, but they are substrates for various enzymes and they also undergo various secondary reactions. During this decade, hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid from linoleates, F2-isoprostanes from arachidonates, and neuroprostanes from docosahexanoates have been proposed as biomarkers for evaluating oxidative stress in vivo and its related diseases. The implications of lipid peroxidation products in vivo will be briefly reviewed and their practical applications will be discussed.
To elucidate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO-synthase (iNOS) in the pathogenesis of patients with allergic rhinitis, we analyzed changes in the frequency of sneezing, plasma levels of NO metabolites, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and immunoglobulin E and tracheal expression of IgA and mast cell tryptase in control and iNOS−/− mice. Eight-week-old control and iNOS−/− male C57BL/6j mice were sensitized with Cry j I antigen. After the last intranasal challenge of antigen, changes in the frequency of sneezing and plasma levels of IgE, α-MSH and NO metabolites and tracheal expression of iNOS, IgA and mast cell tryptase were analyzed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies. The sensitization of mice with Cry j I antigen increased plasma levels of NO metabolites, α-MSH and IgE and tracheal expression of iNOS, IgA and mast cell tryptase in control not but in iNOS−/− mice. Administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester strongly inhibited all these changes occurred in control mice. These results indicate that the symptom of pollinosis including sneezing is enhanced by iNOS derived NO through activation of α-MSH-receptor containing mast cells enriched with tryptase.
The augmented consumption of dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) has been associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, however, there is insufficient information over the effect on insulin resistance. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of dAGEs restriction on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde, C-reactive protein (CRP), and insulin resistance in DM2 patients. We carried out a randomized 6 weeks prospective study in two groups of patients: subjects with a standard diet (n = 13), vs low dAGEs (n = 13). At the beginning and the end of study, we collected anthropometric measurements, and values of circulating glucose, HbA1c, lipids, insulin, serum AGEs, CRP, TNF-α and malondialdehyde. Anthropometric measurements, glucose, and lipids were similar in both groups at base line and at the end of the study. Estimation of basal dAGEs was similar in both groups; after 6 weeks it was unchanged in the standard group but in the low dAGEs group decreased by 44% (p<0.0002). Changes in TNF-α levels were different under standard diet (12.5 ± 14.7) as compared with low dAGEs (−18.36 ± 17.1, p<0.00001); changes in malondialdehyde were different in the respective groups (2.0 ± 2.61 and −0.83 ± 2.0, p<0.005) no changes were found for insulin levels or HOMA-IR. In conclusion, The dAGEs restriction decreased significantly TNF-α and malondialdehyde levels.
This study examined the clinical and biological importance of thioredoxin-1, a redox-active defensive protein that controls multiple biological functions, in pregnant women. We measured serum concentrations of thioredoxin-1, total hydroperoxides, and redox potential in 60 pregnant women at the early third trimester: gestational age of 27–29 weeks. The thioredoxin-1 concentration (mean ± SD) was 90 ± 42 ng/ml. Total hydroperoxides was 471 ± 105 U.CARR (1 U.CARR = 0.08 mg/dl H2O2). Redox potential was 2142 ± 273 µmol/l. The total hydroperoxides: redox potential ratio (oxidative stress index) was 0.23 ± 0.08. Thioredoxin-1, total hydroperoxides, and oxidative stress index were higher and redox potential was lower than in blood of healthy adults. Total hydroperoxides and redox potential were mutually correlated significantly and negatively. Thioredoxin-1 correlated significantly and negatively and redox potential correlated significantly and positively with body weight and body mass index. Thioredoxin-1 and redox potential correlated significantly and positively with uric acid and albumin, respectively. Thioredoxin-1 and oxidative stress index correlated significantly and negatively and redox potential significantly and positively with neonatal birth weight. These results suggest that high concentrations of thioredoxin-1 are linked to high oxidative stress status in pregnant women and that neonatal birth weight is affected by the maternal oxidative condition during later pregnancy.
The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of vitamin E analogs, especially gamma-tocotrienol (γ-T3), on hepatic TG accumulation and enzymes related to fatty acid metabolism in three types of rat primary hepatocytes: (1) normal hepatocytes, (2) hepatocytes incubated in the presence of palmitic acid (PA), and (3) hepatocytes with fat accumulation. Our results showed that γ-T3 significantly reduced the TG content of normal hepatocytes. γ-T3 also increased the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1A) mRNA, and tended to reduce that of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA. In addition, γ-T3 markedly suppressed the gene expression of both C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and SREBP-1c induced by PA. As these two genes are located downstream of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, their suppression by γ-T3 might result from a decrease of ER stress. Moreover, γ-T3 suppressed the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which lies downstream of CHOP signaling. Taken together, our data suggest that γ-T3 might prevent hepatic steatosis and ameliorate ER stress and subsequent inflammation in the liver.
The relation between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome is observed not only with frank hyperuricemia but also with serum uric acid levels within the normal range. The current “normal” range set for hyperuricemia often fails to identify patients with potential metabolic disorders. We investigate the association between serum uric acid within the normal range and incident metabolic syndrome risk, and further to determine the optimal cut-off value of serum uric acid for the diagnosis or prediction of metabolic syndrome. A total of 7399 Chinese adults (2957 men and 4442 women; ≥20 years) free of metabolic syndrome were followed for 3 years. During the 3-year follow-up, 1190 normouricemic individuals developed metabolic syndrome (16.1%). After adjusting the associated variables, the top quartile of serum uric acid levels was associated with higher metabolic syndrome development compared with the bottom quartile in men (hazard ratio (HR), 1.29; p<0.05) and women (HR, 1.62; p<0.05). ROC curve analysis indicated that the optimal cut-off values for serum uric acid to identify metabolic syndrome were 6.3 mg/dl in men and 4.9 mg/dl in women. Our results suggested that high baseline serum uric acid levels within the normal range predict future development of metabolic syndrome after 3 y of follow-up.
It is well recognized that intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. To investigate the mechanisms behind this “metabolic imprinting” phenomenon, we examined the impact of maternal undernutrition on insulin signaling pathway and the ATP sensitive potassium channel expression in the hypothalamus of intrauterine growth restriction fetus. Intrauterine growth restriction rat model was developed through maternal low protein diet. The expression and activated levels of insulin signaling molecules and KATP protein in the hypothalami which were dissected at 20 days of gestation, were analyzed by western blot and real time PCR. The tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the insulin receptor substrate 2 and phosphatidylinositol 3’-kinase p85α in the hypothalami of intrauterine growth restriction fetus were markedly reduced. There was also a downregulation of the hypothalamic ATP sensitive potassium channel subunit, sulfonylurea receptor 1, which conveys the insulin signaling. Moreover, the abundances of gluconeogenesis enzymes were increased in the intrauterine growth restriction livers, though no correlation was observed between sulfonylurea receptor 1 and gluconeogenesis enzymes. Our data suggested that aberrant intrauterine milieu impaired insulin signaling in the hypothalamus, and these alterations early in life might contribute to the predisposition of the intrauterine growth restriction fetus toward the adult metabolic disorders.
As the traditional homemade chungkookjang is replaced by standardized chungkookjang fermented by inoculating Bacillus spp., it is desirable to maintain the anti-diabetic efficacy of the most potent traditional varieties. Preliminary in vitro research suggested that anti-diabetic efficacy can be achieved by using B. lichemiformis as a starter and fermenting for 48 h. Experimental type 2 diabetic male rats induced by partial pancreatectomy and high fat diets were administered either control diet, 10% cooked soybeans, 10% traditional chungkookjang with potent anti-diabetic efficacy, or standardized chungkookjang fermented with B. lichemiformis for 48 h. Rats were fed their respective diets for 8 weeks after surgery. Cooked soybeans as well as both chungkookjangs partially restored fasting serum glucose concentrations, but only the chungkoojangs increased fasting insulin levels. That trend was also seen in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamp and was explained by the greater β-cell mass and BrdU incorporation indicating increased proliferation of β-cells. The euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp indicated that all soy products improved insulin sensitivity. Phosphorylation of Akt and AMPK in the liver increased in an ascending order of the control, cooked soybeans, traditional chungkookjang and standardized chungkookjang while PEPCK expression was lowered in a descending order of the control, cooked soybeans, traditional chungkookjang and standardized chungkookjang. These results indicate that standardized chungkookjang is most effective for improving hepatic insulin signaling. In conclusion, chungkookjang fermented with B. lichemiformis retains the anti-diabetic properties of the most efficacious traditional chungkookjang and it may be even more effective for improving insulin function than traditionally prepared chungkookjang.
This study investigated the mechanism by which the strength and weakness of exercise stress affects the skin symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventional NC/Nga mice were used. Conventional mice, but not the SPF, spontaneously develop dermal symptoms similar to that of patients with AD. There were two types of stress, mild (20 m/min for 60 min) or strong exercise (25 m/min for 90 min), using a treadmill four times per day. The symptom of the conventional group were strongly exacerbated by strong exercise but ameliorated by mild exercise. The plasma concentrations of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the expression of melanocortin receptor-1 in skin elevated after strong exercise but decreased after mild exercise. The plasma levels of β-endorphin and the expression of µ-opioid receptor in skin were increased by mild exercise. In addition, the expression of prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3, PC2 and carboxypeptidase E (CPE) in pituitary gland were higher in the conventional group than in the SPF group. The level of PC2 was suppressed by mild exercise in the conventional groups, and elevated further by strong exercise. The level of PC1/3 becomes higher with the increase of the exercise load. On the other hand, the expression of the CPE was further increase by mild exercise but suppressed by strong exercise. These observations suggested that exercise-induced stress significantly affect the symptoms of AD in a pivotal manner depending on the levels of α-MSH and β-endorphin, and the expression of pituitary PC2 and CPE.
We investigated the effects of anticancer agents on peripheral blood mononuclear cells for the purpose of providing data to support new translational chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells were treated with one of four anticancer agents (5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, cisplatin, and gemcitabine) for 2 h, after which cell viability was determined. For assessment of effects of each drug on proliferation and cytokine production, cells were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin for 48 h. As a result, the anticancer agents did not affect cell viability. Cell proliferation was unaffected by 5-fluorouracil and irinotecan but inhibited by cisplatin and gemcitabine. Treatment with gemcitabine enhanced the production of IFN-γ and decreased the number of regulatory T cells. gemcitabine treatment increased IFN-γ production among CD4 T cells but not among CD8 T cells. The results indicated that GEM had immunoregulatory properties that might support immune response against cancer. This finding has implications for designing chemoimmunotherapy strategies.
The complement system is a potent effector of innate immunity. To elucidate the pathophysiological role of the complement system in inflammatory bowel disease, we evaluated the effects of anti-C5 antibodies on the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. Dextran sulfate sodium-colitis was induced in BALB/c mice with intraperitoneal administrations of anti-C5 antibodies (1 µg/body) every 48 h. Tissue samples were evaluated by standard histological procedures. The mucosal mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines was analyzed by real-time PCR. Body weight loss in the mice was completely blocked by the administration of anti-C5 antibody. The disease activity index was significantly lower in the anti-C5 antibody-treated mice than the dextran sulfate sodium mice. The colonic weight/length ratio, histological colitis score and mucosal myeloperoxidase activity were significantly lower in the anti-C5 antibody-treated mice than the dextran sodium sulfate mice. The administration of the anti-C5 antibody significantly reduced the mucosal expression of mRNAs for tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6. In conclusion, the complement system plays a role in the development of dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis.
We investigated comparison according to reflux esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease about “daily” symptom improvement for proton pump inhibitor treatment. We enrolled 57 reflux esophagitis and 90 non-erosive reflux disease patients. They took rabeprazole 10 mg/day for 28 days and completed “daily” in the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD from baseline until day 14, and after 28 days of treatment. The efficacy endpoint was the improvement rates in Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD, based on baseline. Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD was decreased in reflux esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (p<0.001) and was significantly lower in reflux esophagitis than in non-erosive reflux disease from the first day of treatment (p<0.05). Symptomatic improvement rates were also significantly higher in reflux esophagitis (50.3 ± 44.9%) than in non-erosive reflux disease (31.7 ± 43.2%) from the first day of treatment (p<0.0001). The symptomatic improvement rates in reflux esophagitis were significant increased from the second day of treatment until after 28 days of treatment (p = 0.0006), however, these in non-erosive reflux disease were significant increased from third days until after 28 days of treatment (p = 0.0002). In non-erosive reflux disease, the improvement of dysmotility symptom was particularly gradual as well as of reflux symptom, too. As for results of prediction of proton pump inhibitor response (completed symptom resolution) form early symptom improvement within 1 week, it was able to predict proton pump inhibitor response from the symptom improvement rate on 3 days in reflux esophagitis and on day 7 in non-erosive reflux disease. In conclusion, the prediction of the proton pump inhibitor response in non-erosive reflux disease was slow in comparison with reflux esophagitis. The cause was gradual improvement of dysmotility symptom.
We compared the relationships of alcoholic fatty liver and nonalcoholic fatty liver with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Using a nationwide Japanese survey, we collected data on subjects with biopsy-proven alcoholic fatty liver or nonalcoholic fatty liver. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether alcoholic fatty liver and nonalcoholic fatty liver are associated factors for these diseases. Data on 191 subjects (65, alcoholic fatty liver; 126, nonalcoholic fatty liver) were analyzed. Alcoholic fatty liver (odds ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–6.32; p = 0.040), age ≥55 years, and body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 were correlated with hypertension, whereas nonalcoholic fatty liver (odds ratio, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–5.20; p = 0.035) and serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels ≥75 IU/l were correlated with dyslipidemia. Furthermore, we found that there were biological interactions between alcoholic fatty liver and body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 in ≥55-year-old subjects (attributable proportion due to interaction, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.19–1.17), as well as between alcoholic fatty liver and age ≥55 years in subjects with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 (attributable proportion due to interaction, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.24–1.18). Alcoholic fatty liver was more strongly associated with hypertension than nonalcoholic fatty liver and nonalcoholic fatty liver was more strongly associated with dyslipidemia than alcoholic fatty liver. Moreover, alcoholic fatty liver, obesity, and older age may interact to influence hypertension status.
Previous studies have indicated an association between the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and aging plus height. In this study we investigated whether the arm span–height difference was related to GERD symptoms with a focus on aged subjects in the general population, since the arm span reflects the height in young adulthood before decreasing due to vertebral deformities from aging. A total of 285 elderly individuals (105 females) who visited nursing homes for the elderly in Japan were enrolled in this study. The GERD symptoms were evaluated by the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD (FSSG). The body weight, height and arm span were measured, and information regarding medications and complications were reviewed in each nursing record. 50.5% of women had more than 3 cm of arm span–height difference. In contrast, only 37.3% of men had more than 3 cm of arm span–height difference. The FSSG scores indicated more than 70% of subjects complained of any GERD symptoms. There was a significant correlation between the FSSG score and the arm span–height difference in the subjects with more than 3 cm of arm span-height difference (r = 0.236; p = 0.012). The correlation between the arm span–height difference and the FSSG score was significant only in women in females in the present study. In conclusion, our findings indicate that vertebral deformity evaluated by the arm span–height difference might have some positive relationship to the pathogenesis of GERD symptoms in elderly Japanese individuals.