Heme oxygenases (HOs) are rate-limiting enzymes catabolizing heme to biliverdin, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide, and of the three HO isoforms identified, HO-1 plays a protective role against inflammatory processes. In this study, we investigated the possible role of HO-1 in intestinal inflammation. Acute colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 (wild-type) and homozygous BTB and CNC homolog 1 (Bach1)-deficient mice, which show high HO-1 expression in the colonic mucosa, using dextran sodium sulfate. The disease activity index, myeloperoxidase activity, and inflammatory cytokines in the colonic mucosa were evaluated 7 days after dextran sodium sulfate-dependent colitis induction. We also evaluated the impact of HO-1 inhibition using zinc protoporphyrin IX (25 mg/kg i.p., daily). After dextran sodium sulfate administration, HO-1 mRNA and protein expression increased in a time-dependent manner. Disease activity index score, myeloperoxidase activity, and colonic production of TNF-α and IFN-γ were increased after dextran sodium sulfate administration, and co-administration of zinc protoporphyrin IX enhanced their increase. In addition, disease activity index in Bach1-deficient was significantly lower after dextran sodium sulfate administration than that in wild type mice. These results indicate that HO-1 plays a protective role against dextran sodium sulfate-induced intestinal inflammation, possibly by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines in intestinal tissues.
To determine the preventive effect of dietary rutin on oxidative damages occurring in the digestive tract, 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid and hemoglobin were exposed to Caco-2 intestinal cells after the pretreatment with colonic rutin metabolites. Among four catechol-type metabolites, quercetin and 3,4-dihydroxytoluene exerted significant protection on 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic and hemoglobin-dependent lipid peroxidation of this epithelial cell. Compared with quercetin, a much lower concentration allowed 3,4-dihydroxytoluene to maximize the protective effect, though it needed a longer pre-incubation period. Neither quercetin nor 3,4-dihydroxytoluene affected the expression of peroxiredoxin-6 protein, which comprises the cellular antioxidant defense system. It is concluded that 3,4-dihydroxytoluene is a plausible rutin colonic metabolite that can suppress oxidative damages of intestinal epithelial cells by directly inhibiting lipid peroxidation. This result may illuminate the preventive role of dietary rutin against colorectal cancer incidence in relation to the consumption of red and processed meat.
Excessive phosphate intake has been positively associated with renal and vascular dysfunction, conversely negatively associated with body fat accumulation. We investigated the effect of a high-phosphate diet on the expression of lipid metabolic genes in white adipose tissue and liver. Male 8-week-old Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a control diet containing 0.6% phosphate or a high-phosphate diet containing 1.5% phosphate for 4 weeks. In comparison to the control group, the HP group showed a significantly lower body fat mass and fasting plasma insulin level alongside decreased lipogenic and increased lipolytic gene expression in visceral fat. Additionally, the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, hepatic glycogenesis, and triglyceride accumulation decreased in the high-phosphate group. Exogenous phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and fibroblast growth factor 23 did not directly affect the expression of lipolytic or lipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 hepatocytes. Thus, the high-phosphate diet suppressed the activity of white adipose tissue by increasing lipolytic gene expression and decreasing lipogenic gene expression. These effects could have been caused by the lowered fasting plasma insulin level that occurred in response to the high-phosphate diet, but were not directly caused by the increases in plasma phosphate or phosphaturic hormones.
Various diseases are known to be associated with an imbalance of the redox state, but in vivo detection of free radicals is difficult. The purpose of this study is to establish a method for in vivo visualization of redox status by high-resolution whole-body MRI using nitroxide radicals. A redox-sensitive nitroxide probe, 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (carbamoyl-PROXYL), was administered to rats intravenously, and in vivo T1-weighted MRI was performed to virtually visualize the redox status of various organs. In experiments using phantoms, a linear relationship between the MRI signal and the carbamoyl-PROXYL concentration persisted up to 80 mM. Among the phantoms, a sample containing 1 mM carbamoyl-PROXYL was readily identifiable. After intravenous injection of carbamoyl-PROXYL, whole-body T1-weighted MRI of the rat provided clear images with good spatial and temporal resolution. The signal intensities of four selected organs (heart, liver, kidney, and intestine) were analyzed quantitatively. The carbamoyl-PROXYL signal peaked and gradually declined due to reduction after intravenous injection. Among the four organs, the organ-specific reduction rate of carbamoyl-PROXYL was highest in the heart, followed by (in order) the liver, kidney, and intestine, and statistical analysis showed that the inter-organ differences were significant. In conclusion, T1-weighted carbamoyl-PROXYL-enhanced MRI provides excellent spatial and temporal imaging of carbamoyl-PROXYL distribution. Furthermore, it provides important functional information pertaining to blood flow and tissue redox activity in individual organs. MRI in combination with carbamoyl-PROXYL has potential clinical application for evaluation of redox activity in whole organs.
To reduce the incidence and severity of atopic dermatitis, detection and treatment at an early stage are urgently required, but no effective biomarker has been reported. In this study, we attempted to detect a candidate biomarker of early stage atopic dermatitis by focusing on the levels of nitrated residues in the plasma proteins of atopic dermatitis model mice (NC/Nga mice). We found that the immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain was more highly nitrated in the plasma of the animal model than that of control mice. Western blot analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the 6-nitrotryptophan content of the Ig light chain in the NC/Nga mice before onset of atopic dermatitis symptoms and that of the control mice. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis demonstrated that these light chains contained nitrotryptophan (Trp56) and nitrotyrosine (Tyr66). Immunofluorescence staining revealed a significant increase in manganese superoxide dismutase and inducible nitric oxide synthase production in the skin lesions of the NC/Nga mice. Furthermore, we found protein-bound 6-nitrotryptophan and 3-nitrotyrosine only in the lesioned skin, where their signals partially overlapped with the IgG signal. Our findings suggest that the 6-nitrotryptophan content of Ig light chains could be a new biomarker for detecting early stage atopic dermatitis.
The redox balance of coenzyme Q10 in human plasma is a good marker of oxidative stress because the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinol-10) is very sensitive to oxidation and is quantitatively converted to its oxidized form (ubiquinone-10). Here we describe an HPLC method for simultaneous detection of ubiquinol-10 and ubiquinone-10 in human cerebral spinal fluid to meet a recent demand for measuring local oxidative stress. Since the levels of coenzyme Q10 in human cerebral spinal fluid are less than 1/500 of those in human plasma, cerebral spinal fluid extracted with 2-propanol requires concentration for electrochemical detection. Using human plasma diluted 500-fold with physiological saline as a pseudo-cerebral spinal fluid, we found that addition of tert-butylhydroquinone was effective in preventing the oxidation of ubiquinol-10. The optimized tert-butylhydroquinone concentration in the extraction solvent was 20 µM. The addition of 20 µM ascorbic acid or co-addition of tert-butylhydroquinone and ascorbic acid (20 µM each) were also effective in preventing the oxidation of ubiquinol-10, but ascorbic acid alone gave poor reproducibility. Good within day reproducibility was observed, and day-to-day analytical variance was excellent.
Osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome is a condition including osteopenia, sarcopenia and obesity. A pro-inflammatory dietary pattern has been reported to be associated with obesity and osteoporosis. However, studies on the association of dietary inflammatory index with osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome in the Korean population are lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between dietary inflammatory index and osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome among Korean postmenopausal women. We analyzed the 2009–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, consisting of 1,344 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older. Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary inflammatory index was estimated after analyzing 36 nutrients and 9 foods using a 24-h dietary recall data. The association between dietary inflammatory index levels and the body composition was analyzed by logistic regression models with dietary inflammatory index fit as a dichotomous variable. The dietary inflammatory index was −0.96 ± 0.22 in the normal group, 0.12 ± 0.16 in the osteopenic obesity group, 0.00 ± 0.18 in the osteosarcopenia group, 0.12 ± 0.33 in the sarcopenic obesity group, and −0.02 ± 0.14 in the osteosarcopenic obesity group (p<0.001). After adjusting for potential covariates, women with higher dietary inflammatory index scores were more likely to have risk of osteopenic obesity (OR = 2.757, 95% CI: 1.398–5.438, p<0.01) and that of osteosarcopenic obesity (OR = 2.186, 95% CI: 1.182–4.044, p<0.05). The results indicate that pro-inflammatory diet was associate with increased odds of the osteosarcopenic obesity in postmenopausal Korean women. Therefore, studies are needed to identify the effects of anti-inflammatory diets, which can reduce the degree of inflammation through dietary intake.
We examined the effect of bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. DSS-colitis was induced by the administration of 3% DSS in water in C57BL/6J mice. Bortezomib was intraperitoneally administered daily for 9 days from the start of DSS. Ubiquitination of IκBα was evaluated by immunoblot. Bortezomib significantly ameliorated DSS-induced body weight loss and reduced the disease activity. The translocation of NF-κBp65 into the nucleus was markedly suppressed in the DSS + bortezomib group compared to the DSS group, but this difference was not detected in submucosal tissue. Ubiquitinated IκBα in the cytoplasm of colon epithelial cells was increased in the DSS + bortezomib group compared to the DSS group. In HT-29 cells, bortezomib blocked tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and this was accompanied by an increase in ubiquitinated IκBα in the cytoplasm. The mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators in colonic epithelial cells was significantly reduced by the treatment of bortezomib. Bortezomib inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB in colonic epithelial cells by suppressing the degradation of IκBα and contributed to an improvement in DSS colitis. Our study suggests that bortezomib may be a new treatment option for IBD.
Although low-dose aspirin (LDA) is known to induce small intestinal mucosal injury, the effect of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT; LDA + clopidogrel) on small intestinal mucosa in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary stenosis is unknown. Fifty-one patients with a history of PCI and LDA use were enrolled, and 45 eligible patients were analyzed. Patients were grouped based on DAPT (DAPT: n = 10 and non-DAPT: n = 35) and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use (PPI user: n = 22 and PPI-free patients: n = 23) to compare small intestinal endoscopic findings. The relationship between LDA-use period and small intestinal endoscopic findings was also examined. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors for LDA-induced mucosal injury using age, sex, DAPT, PPI, gastric mucoprotective drug, and LDA-use period. The rate of small intestinal mucosal injury incidence did not significantly differ between DAPT and non-DAPT patients (50% vs 51.1%, respectively; p = 0.94), or PPI users and PPI-free patients (50% vs 52.2%, respectively; p = 0.88). Additionally, LDA-use period of ≤24 months (n = 15) yielded a significantly higher rate of small intestinal mucosal injury incidence than LDA-use period >24 months (n = 30) (80% vs 36.7%, respectively; p = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed that a LDA-use period of ≤24 months was a significant risk factor for small intestinal mucosal injury (odds ratio: 19.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.48–154.00, p = 0.005). Following PCI for coronary stenosis, neither DAPT nor PPI affected LDA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. Moreover, patients who used LDA within the last 24 months were at a greater risk of small intestinal mucosal injury.
Nausea and vomiting after esophagogastroduodenoscopy have not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for post-endoscopic nausea. We performed a case-control study at the Toyoshima Endoscopy Clinic. Eighteen patients with post-endoscopic nausea and 190 controls without post-endoscopic nausea were analyzed. We conducted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with respect to patient age; sex; body height; body weight; the use of psychotropic drugs as baseline medications; and the dosing amounts of midazolam, pethidine, flumazenil and naloxone. On univariate analysis, post-endoscopic nausea was significantly related with patient age (odds ratio = 0.946); female sex (odds ratio = 10.85); body weight (odds ratio = 0.975); and the dose per kg body weight of pethidine (odds ratio = 53.03), naloxone (odds ratio = 1.676), and flumazenil (odds ratio = 1.26). On multivariate analysis, the dose per kg body weight of pethidine (odds ratio = 21.67, p = 0.004) and female sex (odds ratio = 13.12, p = 0.047) were the factors independently associated with post-endoscopic nausea. The prevalence of nausea after esophagogastroduodenoscopy was 0.49% (18/3,654). In conclusion, post-endoscopic nausea was associated with the dose of pethidine and female sex.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of oral administration of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota and amoxicillin-sulbactam in treating childhood fast breathing pneumonia. 518 children diagnosed of fast breathing pneumonia were enrolled and randomly assigned to be administered either amoxicillin-sulbactam + Lactobacillus casei Shirota or amoxicillin-sulbactam + placebo. Primary outcome was defined as treatment failure before day 3, and secondary outcome was defined as treatment failure during follow-ups on day 6 and 12. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ were also examined at the end of day 3. Treatment failure rate before day 3 was significantly reduced in amoxicillin-sulbactam + Lactobacillus casei Shirota group compared to amoxicillin-sulbactam + placebo group. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ were both significantly reduced in amoxicillin-sulbactam + placebo group on day 3. On day 6 and 12, although treatment failure rates were higher than on day 3 in both groups, it was still significantly reduced in amoxicillin-sulbactam + Lactobacillus casei Shirota group. No severe adverse effects were observed in either treatment group. In conclusion, Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota, in combination with amoxicillin-sulbactam, is more effective in treating childhood fast breathing pneumonia, which supports the potential clinical application of Lactobacillus casei Shirota as a safe supplement to amoxicillin-sulbactam therapy against childhood fast breathing pneumonia.
The role of free testosterone, that not bound to sex hormone-binding globulin, in male patients with HCV infection remains uncertain. We investigated whether free testosterone is involved in the progression to hepatic fibrosis/steatosis or insulin resistance in male patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease or not. Free androgen indices, which reflect circulating free testosterone levels, were calculated as 100 × total testosterone levels/sex hormone-binding globulin levels in 30 male patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease. Degrees of hepatic fibrosis and steatosis were evaluated by the New Inuyama Classification and the classification proposed by Brunt and colleagues, respectively. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA-IR values. Serum total testosterone levels were independent of hepatic fibrosis staging in the enrolled patients. However, circulating sex hormone-binding globulin levels were significantly increased in proportion to the severity of hepatic fibrosis. Therefore, free androgen indices were inversely correlated with the severity of hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, free androgen indices were inversely correlated with the grades of hepatic steatosis and HOMA-IR values in those patients. Our data suggest that lower circulating free testosterone levels may be recognized as the risk factor for more advanced hepatic fibrosis, steatosis and/or higher insulin resistance in male patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease.
We investigated the risk factors of and appropriate treatment for cytomegalovirus colitis in patients with ulcerative colitis, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect cytomegalovirus in the colonic mucosa. Between February 2013 and January 2017, patients with exacerbated ulcerative colitis who were admitted to our hospital were consecutively enrolled in this retrospective, single-center study. Patients were evaluated for cytomegalovirus using serology (antigenemia) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of the colonic mucosa, which were sampled during colonoscopy. Of 86 patients, 26 (30.2%) had positive quantitative polymerase chain reaction results for cytomegalovirus; only 4 were also positive for antigenemia. The ages of the cytomegalovirus DNA-positive patients were significantly higher than those of negative patients (p = 0.002). The mean endoscopic score of cytomegalovirus DNA-positive patients was significantly higher than that of cytomegalovirus DNA-negative patients. Treatment with combined immunosuppressants was associated with an increased risk of cytomegalovirus. Fourteen of 15 (93.3%) cytomegalovirus DNA-positive patients who were negative for antigenemia showed a clinical response to treatment with additional oral tacrolimus, without ganciclovir. cytomegalovirus reactivation in active ulcerative colitis is associated with age and combined immunosuppressant therapy. Because additional treatment with tacrolimus was effective, patients who are negative for antigenemia and cytomegalovirus DNA-positive colonic mucosa may recover without antiviral therapy.