Semecarpus anacardium Linn, nut milk extract, a herbal formulation, was investigated for its modulating effect on mineral levels in experimental hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of aflatoxin B1. Sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium contents were analyzed in serum and liver homogenate samples. A decreased level of sodium and increased levels of potassium, calcium, and magnesium were observed in carcinoma-bearing rats. Oral administration of Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract (200mg/kg body weight/day) significantly reversed the mineral contents to near normal levels. These results suggest the improvement of mineral status by the extract, and indirectly indicate the curative efficacy of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract against aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Possible reasons for its restorative potency are discussed.
Body fat accumulation was studied in the male offspring of rats fed a high-fat or low-fat diet. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet or a low-fat (LF) diet were mated in the same diet group at age 13 weeks, and male pups (lst generation) obtained were used in this experiment. The rats of the lst generation were nurtured by their own mother rats (experiment 1) or by F344 foster mother rats (chow-fed) during the suckling period (experiment 2) or during both pregnancy and suckling period (experiment 3). After weaning, male offspring of rats fed the high HF diet (HF-parent rats) or the LF diet (LF-parent rats) were fed a HF diet or low LF diet (experiment 1), or a HF diet only (experiments 2, 3) for 12-17 weeks. Body weights and abdominal adipose tissue weights were greater for HF-parent offspring than for LF-parent offspring under controlled environmental back-grounds for the mother rats during pregnancy and the suckling period. The plasma leptin and insulin concentrations were higher in offspring of HF-parent rats. These results suggest that the effects of maternal HF diet feeding remain in male offspring even though environmental factors are controlled during pregnancy and the suckling period.
We undertook the present study to evaluate the antioxidant activity of an aqueous extract of the seeds of Syzigium cumini, an indigenous plant present in different parts of India, South-East Asia and Eastern Africa, toward experimental diabetes. Administration of the extract for 6 weeks resulted in significant reductions in plasma lipid peroxide, ceruloplasmin and α-tocopherol and a significant elevation in plasma reduced glutathione and vitamin C in alloxan diabetic rats. Insulin restored all the parameters to their normal values. The seed extract was also more effective than glibenclamide in restoring the values of these parameters.
The present study examined the preventive effects of Picrorhiza kurroa, an ayurvedic medicinal plant, on D-galactosamineinduced hepatitis in rats, an animal model of both drug-induced hepatitis and viral hepatitis of human beings. Levels of protein, glycoprotein, cholesterol, phospholipids, and lipid peroxide products in plasma and erythrocyte membrane and the activities of erythrocyte membrane antiper-oxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were determined. Prior oral treatment with an alcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa significantly prevented the D-galactosamine-induced decreases in the levels of protein and glycoprotein and in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. A tendency to prevent the D-galactosamine-induced alterations in the levels of cholesterol, phospholipids and lipid peroxides was also observed. The antihepatotoxic potential of Picrorhiza kurroa might be ascribable to the antioxidant and hypolipidemic nature of Picrorhiza kurroa.
The effects of the menstrual cycle on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were studied in nine healthy young women aged 18-19 years. All subjects were eumenorrheic, with regular menstrual cycles ranging from 28 to 32 days. RMR and DIT were measured in the mid follicular phase and in the mid luteal phase. On the experimental days, subjects fasted overnight; then the RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry. For the measurement of DIT, subjects were fed a meal containing a uniform amount of energy (2.53MJ) eaten within 15 min, and then indirect calorimetry was performed during rest for 180min. The RMR was significantly higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase (67.0 vs. 62.5J/kg/min, p<0.01). DIT was also significantly higher in the luteal phase (4.0 vs. 3.2kJ/kg/3h, p<0.01). The postprandial respiratory exchange ratio was slightly lower in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase (0.78 vs. 0.81). These results suggest that the menstrual cycle phase affects both the RMR and DIT. Higher postprandial energy expenditure and fat utilization in the luteal phase may be related to sympathetic and endocrinal actions.