Effect of amifostine, a radiation-protecting drug, on muscle tissue partial pressure of oxygen was investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. When amifostine was administered intraperitoneally or intravenously to mice, the linewidth of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the lithium octa-n-butoxy-substituted naphthalocyanine implanted in the mouse leg muscle decreased. Electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry using a lithium octa-n-butoxy-substituted naphthalocyanine probe and electron paramagnetic resonance oxygen mapping using a triarylmethyl radical paramagnetic probe was useful to quantify pressure of oxygen in the tissues of living mice. The result of electron paramagnetic resonance oximetric imaging showed that administration of amifostine could decrease pressure of oxygen in the muscle and also tumor tissues. This finding suggests that lowering pressure of oxygen in tissues might contribute in part to the radioprotection of amifostine.
Peroxiredoxin (PRDX), a newly discovered antioxidant enzyme, has an important role in hydrogen peroxide reduction. Among six PRDX genes (PRDX1–6) in mammals, PRDX4 gene is alternatively spliced to produce the somatic cell form (PRDX4) and the testis specific form (PRDX4t). In our previous study, PRDX4 knockout mice displayed testicular atrophy with an increase in cell death due to oxidative stress. However, the antioxidant function of PRDX4t is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that PRDX4t plays a protective role against oxidative stress in the mammalian cell line HEK293T. The PRDX4t-EGFP plasmid was transferred into HEK293T cells; protein expression was confirmed in the cytoplasm. To determine the protective role of PRDX4t in cells, we performed image-based analysis of PRDX4t-EGFP expressed cells exposed to UV irradiation and hydrogen peroxide using fluorescent probe CellROX. Our results suggested that PRDX4t-EGFP expressed cells had reduced levels of oxidative stress compared with cells that express only EGFP. This study highlights that PRDX4t plays an important role in cellular antioxidant defense.
Caffeic acid and (+)-catechin, which are abundantly contained in coffee and tea, are typical polyphenols. In order to know the relative magnitudes of antioxidant activity, effects by caffeic acid, (+)-catechin and their derivatives on the formation of 4-POBN/carbon-centered linoleic acid-derived radical adducts were examined in the control reaction mixture of linoleic acid with FeCl3 at 30°C for 168 h. In the presence of 1.0 mM of the polyphenols, peak to peak heights of the third ESR signal resulted in 7.7 ± 2.4% (n = 3) (caffeic acid), 145 ± 13% (n = 3) (quinic acid), 4.4 ± 0.0% (n = 3) (chlorogenic acid), 104 ± 4.4% (n = 3) (ferulic acid), 4.3 ± 0.0% (n = 3) (noradrenaline), 12.5 ± 10.9% (n = 3) (gallic acid), 38.1 ± 7.1% (n = 3) [(+)-catechin], 47.9 ± 11.7% (n = 3) [(–)-epicatechin], 56.5 ± 1.6% (n = 3) (epigallocatechin), 13.5 ± 1.7% (n = 3) (catechol) and 83.7 ± 7.8% (n = 3) (resorcinol) of the control reaction mixture. All the compounds with catechol moiety exerted potent inhibitory effects on the radical formation except for (+)-catechin, (–)-epicatechin and epigallocatechin. (+)-Catechin, (–)-epicatechin and epigallocatechin may not exert the inhibitory effect as much possibly because they are less stable compared with caffeic acid. The resorcinol moiety in these molecules may also weaken their antioxidant activity.
Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a secreted antioxidative enzyme, and its presence in vascular walls may play an important role in protecting the vascular system against oxidative stress. EC-SOD expression in cultured cell lines is regulated by various cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). TNF-α is a major mediator of pathophysiological conditions and may induce or suppress the generation of various types of mediators. Epigenetics have been defined as mitotically heritable changes in gene expression that do not affect the DNA sequence, and include DNA methylation and histone modifications. The results of the present study demonstrated that TNF-α significantly decreased EC-SOD level in fibroblasts with an accompanying increase in methylated DNA. In DNA methylation and demethylation, cytosine is methylated to 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), and 5mC is then converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and cytosine in a stepwise manner by ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenases (TETs). However, DNMT did not participate in TNF-α-induced DNA methylation within the EC-SOD promoter region. On the other hand, TNF-α significantly suppressed TET1 expression and EC-SOD mRNA levels were decreased by the silencing of TET1 in fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that the down-regulation of EC-SOD by TNF-α is regulated by DNA methylation through reductions in TET1.
The aim of the present study is to evaluate of the impact of immunonutrition on parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis and malnutrition. In the 30 patients with cystic fibrosis and long-term enteral nutrition support for malnutrition the effect of standard and immunonutrion sipping on oxidative stress and inflammatory activity parameters was compared. Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) as parameter of oxidative stress and serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin 1 and 6, hsCRP, IgM, IgA, IgG as parameters of inflammatory activity were examined. Immunonutrition decreased SAA to 17.6 mg/L comparing to 25.6 mg/L when standard nutrition was given (p = 0.014). MDA was 0.66 µM on standard and 0.96 µM on immunonutrition support (p<0.01). The significant negative correlation was recorded between MDA and SAA, hs-CRP, interleukin 6, IgA and IgG. In conclusion, the application of immunonutrition in patients with cystic fibrosis and malnutrition is associated with drop of SAA but with the rise of MDA.
The relationship between exercise training and nitric oxide-related parameters was examined in a cross-sectional study and an intervention study. A cross-sectional study using 184 employees was conducted to observe the association of exercise habits with serum arginase (ELISA and activity), l-arginine, l-citrulline, l-ornithine, NOx, exhaled nitric oxide, blood pressure, FEV1%, hs-CRP, HDL-cholesterol, IgE, and life style factors. An intervention study was also conducted to evaluate the changes of serum arginase I, nitric oxide-related parameters, and mRNA levels of anti-oxidant enzymes in blood monocytes before and after 1 h of aerobic exercise training per day for a month. Exercise habits were associated with increased arginase activity and a moderate alcohol drinking habit, after adjustment with several covariates. Aerobic exercise training induced a decrease in l-arginine and diastolic blood pressure and induced an increase in NO2− and urea. Moreover, mRNA expression of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as catalase and GPX1, and a life elongation enzyme, SIRT3, were significantly increased after aerobic exercise. The results that aerobic exercise training increased NO generation, reduced blood pressure, and induced anti-oxidant enzymes via SIRT3 suggest that exercise training may be an important factor for the prevention of disease by inducing intrinsic NO and anti-oxidant enzymes.
In this study, we examined whether compound 48/80 (C48/80), a mast cell degranulator, causes hepatic oxidative damage in rats. Serum and liver biochemical parameters were determined 0.5, 3 or 6 h after a single treatment with C48/80 (0.75 mg/kg). Serum histamine and serotonin levels increased 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment but diminished thereafter. Increases in serum vitamin C (VC) and transaminases and hepatic hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxide, and myeloperoxidase levels and a decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione level occurred 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment and further proceeded at 3 h, but these changes diminished at 6 h. Serum lipid peroxide and hepatic VC levels increased 3 h after C48/80 treatment. Hepatic glycogen level decreased 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment and further decreased at 3 h. Pre-administered ketotifen diminished all these changes found at 3 h after treatment, while pre-administered NPC 14686 diminished these changes except changes in serum histamine and serotonin levels. Hepatocellular apoptosis observed at 3 h after C48/80 treatment was attenuated by pre-administered ketotifen and NPC 14686. These results indicate that C48/80 causes oxidative damage by enhancing VC synthesis via reduced glutathione depletion-dependent glycogenolysis and lipid peroxidation through neutrophil infiltration following mast cell degranulation in rat livers.
It is important to establish effective methods for preventing colorectal cancer because the number of colorectal cancer deaths is increasing. Erythromycin one of the macrolide antibiotics, has been shown to exert pleiotropic effects, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, on mammalian cells. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of erythromycin on intestinal carcinogenesis. We first confirmed that erythromycin suppresses the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1 and the expression of its downstream targets, interleukin-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 in human colon cancer cells. Next, we fed 5-week-old male Apc mutant Min mice with diets containing 500 ppm erythromycin for 15 weeks. Erythromycin treatment significantly reduced the number of proximal intestinal polyps to 70.9% of the untreated control value. Moreover, erythromycin reduced the levels of interleukin-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression in intestinal polyps. Although the levels of hepatic NADPH oxidase mRNA were decreased, erythromycin treatment did not affect the levels of oxidative stress markers, reactive carbonyl species, in the liver of Min mice. Our results suggest that erythromycin suppresses intestinal polyp development in Min mice, in part by attenuating local inflammation, and indicate that erythromycin is useful as a chemopreventive agent.
The effects of patient age on the efficacy of eradication treatment for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) remain unclear. The present study aimed to determine whether age affects eradication therapy involving vonoprazan, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker (PCAB). We reviewed the cases of 3,261 patients who were administered first-line and second-line H. pylori eradication therapy at Toyoshima Endoscopy Clinic. The first-line treatment was clarithromycin and amoxicillin combined with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or a PCAB. The second-line treatment was metronidazole and amoxicillin combined with a PPI or PCAB. The patients were divided into a young to middle-aged group (age ≤50 years) and an older group (age >50 years) as well as into PPI and PCAB groups. The PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin regimen demonstrated a significantly lower H. pylori eradication rate than the PCAB-clarithromycin-amoxicillin regimen (p<0.001). With the PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin regimen, the eradication rate in the young to middle-aged group was significantly lower than that in the older group (p<0.001). Lastly, age had no impact on the eradication rate of PCAB-based therapy or metronidazole-based therapy. In conclusion, with clarithromycin-based triple therapy, PCAB is a better choice of antisecretory agent compared to PPIs, especially in young to middle-aged patients.
We previously reported that cascade stomach was associated with reflux symptoms and esophagitis. Delayed gastric emptying has been believed to initiate transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR). We hypothesized that cascade stomach may be associated with frequent TLESR with delayed gastric emptying. Eleven subjects with cascade stomach and 11 subjects without cascade stomach were enrolled. Postprandial gastroesophageal manometry and gastric emptying using a continuous 13C breath system were measured simultaneously after a liquid test meal. TLESR events were counted in early period (0–60 min), late period (60–120 min), and total monitoring period. Three parameters of gastric emptying were calculated: the half emptying time, lag time, and gastric emptying coefficient. The median frequency of TLESR events in the cascade stomach and non-cascade stomach groups was 6.0 (median), 4.6 (interquartile range) vs 5.0, 3.0 in the early period, 5.0, 3.2 vs 3.0, 1.8 in the late period, and 10.0, 6.2 vs 8.0, 5.0 in the total monitoring period. TLESR events were significantly more frequent in the cascade stomach group during the late and total monitoring periods. In contrast, gastric emptying parameters showed no significant differences between the two groups. We concluded that TLESR events were significantly more frequent in persons with cascade stomach without delayed gastric emptying.
The gastrointestinal effects of α-glucosidase inhibitors have not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of pre-prandial voglibose might affect the rate of gastric emptying, determined using the 13C breath test. Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. The subjects fasted overnight and received 0.2 mg voglibose or a placebo 2 h before a test meal. They were then served a liquid test meal consisting of 200 kcal per 200 ml that contained 100 mg 13C-acetate. Breath samples were collected under both conditions until 150 min after the meal. A comparison of the control and voglibose conditions revealed that for gastric emptying rates (with values expressed as median: range), T1/2 [(87.9: 78.0–104.9 min) vs (88.4: 74.3–106.3 min), p = 1], Tlag [(47.1: 39.6–60.1 min) vs (45.4: 31.2–63.3 min), p = 0.432], β [(1.89: 1.68–2.18) vs (1.90: 1.35–2.15), p = 0.846] and κ [(0.81: 0.71–0.98) vs (0.81: 0.50–0.94), p = 0.922] did not significantly differ between conditions. A significant difference between the control and voglibose conditions was found for the GEC [(4.28: 4.09–4.44) vs (4.06: 3.69–4.50), p = 0.0138]. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the ingestion of oral voglibose led to delayed gastric emptying of a liquid meal.