Determination of the effect of prolactin administration on glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin, and liver glycogen concentrations in male rabbit was the aim of the present investigation. Thin sections of livers and testes were also examined microscopically. The results suggested that prolactin administration produced a state of prolactin over secretion. The level of serum glucose showed a significant increase without any significant change in insulin activity. Non-esterified fatty acid level increased in serum while liver glycogen decreased. The histological observations revealed that prolactin administration exerts a degenerative changes in both livers and testes.
Lipoprotein lipase activity and lipids of rat adipose tissue were determined after the feeding of a diet in which a high carbohydrate product (gari) was incorporated at the level of 16% or 32% by weight. Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity was found to be decreased in the gari-fed rats when compared with that of the control group in which there was no gari incorporation (p<0.01). Cholesterol ester and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the gari-fed rats (p<0.05), whereas phospholipid concentrations were higher in the control group (p<0.05). The differences in free cholesterol concentrations were not statistically significant in the three groups.
The acridine derivative quinacrine, the broad spectrum antibiotic tetracycline, and the 4-aminoquinoline compound chloroquine, all have antimalarial properties. Based on our recent proposal that the antimalarial effects of certain drugs may be related to their inhibition of riboflavin metabolism, the present study was conducted to determine whether these drugs will act as riboflavin antagonists. Adult Holtzman rats were injected intraperitoneally with either tetracycline, quinacrine, or chloroquine for three days at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight. Agematched, pair-fed control rats received an equivalent volume of normal saline. One hour prior to sacrifice, all rats received a single subcutaneous injection of [14C]riboflavin (25μCi/kg body weight). After decapitation, heart and skeletal muscle surrounding the femur were excised, and aliquots were analyzed for [14C]flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) formation. Compared with results in controls, rats treated with either tetracycline or quinacrine exhibited diminished formation of [14C]FAD in heart and in skeletal muscle. By contrast, chloroquine had no significant inhibitory effect upon [14C]FAD formation in either heart or skeletal muscle. These data provide evidence that tetracycline and quinacrine, agents with recognized antimalarial properties, each diminish FAD biosynthesis in heart and in skeletal muscle. By contrast, chloroquine has no effect upon FAD biosynthesis. This study provides evidence supporting a possible link between decreased formation of FAD and the action of certain tricyclic and tetracyclic drugs effective against malaria.
Adult cats adapted to a semi-purified casein diet were used to study the effects of chronic doses of gluten or gliadin administered per os for 16 consecutive days, for a total of 700mg per kg per day, on various blood and brain parameters. The ad libitum food intake, serum amino acid content, brain, adrenal, and serum dopamine-β-hydroxylase activity, and cerebral GABAergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic metabolism of cats fed casein gluten or gliadin were studied. In the brain, the wheat proteins favored mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways and decreased the choline acetyltransferase and glutamic acid decarboxylase activities in these pathways thus suggesting an interaction between the corresponding neurotransmitters. The decreased food intake in cats fed gluten or gliadin was paralleled by an increased noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin contents in the brainstem areas. In treated cats the adrenal and serum dopamine-β-hydroxylase activities were decreased whereas this enzyme activity in the brain remained normal. The ratio of serum total tryptophan or tyrosine to the sum of six neutral amino acids were significantly decreased and inversely correlated with serotonin and catecholamine contents in the brain. Biochemical peripheral and cerebral disturbances observed following chronic gluten or gliadin administration could provide some basis for correlated behavioral properties of wheat peptides.
Various molar ratios of the constituents of sulfatide-containing liposomes (egg phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and sulfatide) were examined with respect to liposomal efficiency to entrap adriamycin (ADM) and to the tissue distribution. Among the ratios of the constituents examined, 5:4:1 was the best in terms of entrapment efficiency for both multilamellar vesicles (MLV) and small unilamellar vesicles (SUV). Tissue distribution studies of liposome-entrapped ADM showed that the blood clearance and cardiac uptake of ADM were significantly reduced when the drug was entrapped in the above liposomes, especially in the MLV. Incorporation of ADM into ovarian tumors transplanted into nude mice was increased when the drug was entrapped in the SUV.
Iron status was assessed in 66 vegetarian men and 73 vegetarian women by the determination of packed cell volume (PCV), free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), and serum ferritin. All of them had consumed vegetarian diets for more than one year and 84% were vegans. The results were compared with the respective sex of 36 omnivorous men and 66 omnivorous women. Vegetarians had significantly lower PCV and serum ferritin than omnivores. This indicates that the iron store in vegetarians was lower than that in omnivores. However, the degree of iron depletion was not severe enough to cause a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of iron depletion (serum ferritin, <12μg/liter) or iron-deficient erythropoiesis (FEP, >100μg/dl RBC) as well as in the mean FEP levels between the two groups. This is consistent with the dietary assessment which revealed that both vegetarians and omnivores had adequate intakes of iron and ascorbic acid and their diets were categorized as having high iron availability. Based on PCV, vegetarians were more anemic than omnivores. Thus in addition to iron, these vegetarians may also be deficient in other nutrients required for hemoglobin synthesis.
Fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, cholesterol, lipoprotein cholesterol, and urinary hydroxyproline levels were determined in insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patients. Appreciable hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia were noticed in all diabetics. Influence of sex was noticed in cholesterol levels and its fractions. IDDM males did not differ appreciably from their age- and sex-matched controls with respect to cholesterol and its fractions, whereas NIDDM males registered a significant change in low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol when compared with their sex- and age-matched controls. IDDM males showed a lower level of cholesterol and its fractions than the NIDDM males. Both IDDM and NIDDM female diabetics exhibited an appreciable increase in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol when compared with their sex- and age-matched controls. The female diabetics in general showed a higher level of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride than the males. Urinary excretion of hydroxyproline showed an increase in the case of females of both IDDM and NIDDM types when compared with the corresponding male patients. However there was no appreciable difference among the different hydroxyproline fractions between males and females of either type.
Immunohistochemical distribution of vitamin B12 R-binder, an immunologically distinct vitamin B12-binding protein, was studied in human skin tissues. Positive staining for R-binder was found in normal eccrine glands, syringoma, eccrine poroma, and genital Paget's disease. It is speculated that R-binder plays a role in the local defense mechanism by inhibiting bacterial overgrowth.
The effect of pectin incorporated along with other natural foods in a slimming formula was tested on fourteen healthy Egyptian women, aged 23-46 years and with body mass index (BMI) between 27.6-44.9 for four weeks. The aim of using pectin was to ultimately promote intestinal satiety and assist the psychological tolerance of food reduction. The formula substituted for breakfast and dinner for the first three days, then breakfast only for the rest of the four weeks. Total caloric intake for the whole period did not exceed 1, 000kcal/day. The mean percent loss of weight and BMI was 5.84 and 5.95, respectively. There was a decrease in all anthropometric parameters, reaching statistical significance in the subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds. Fasting concentrations of serum total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood glucose decreased numerically only, while high density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 19.28% and was statistically significant. No change was found in the level of haemoglobin, serum total protein, albumin, and globulin, but a numerical decrease was observed in the level of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase enzymes after the regimen. The resultant beneficial effect of even small amounts of pectin on weight reduction and on lipid metabolism is to be considered.