Gymnema sylvestre is regarded as one of the plants with potent anti diabetic properties. This plant is also used for controlling obesity in the form of Gymnema tea. The active compound of the plant is a group of acids termed as gymnemic acids. It has been observed that there could be a possible link between obesity, Gymnemic acids and diabetes. This review will try to put forth an overall idea about the plant as well as present a molecular perspective linking the common medicine to the most common metabolic disorders.
The exact pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that mucosal immune and inflammatory responses, characterized by specific cytokine and chemokine profiles, may underlie the diverse esophageal phenotypes of GERD. Interleukin 8 (IL-8), a representative chemokine, mediates neutrophil trafficking via its receptors, mainly CXCR-1. The IL-8 mRNA and protein levels are increased in the esophageal mucosa, not only in reflux esophagitis (RE), but also in endoscopy-negative GERD (NERD), through activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which is a pivotal transcription factor. Mucosal IL-8 concentrations have been found to parallel the endoscopic severity of RE, implying that this cytokine is a key player in the development of GERD. The mucosal levels of the C-C chemokines, macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and regulated on activation normal T-cell-expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES), which primarily attract monocytes and lymphocytes to the site of inflammation, respectively, are also elevated in RE. The secreted levels of IL-8 and IL-1β, a prototype of proinflammatory cytokine, are maximal at the proximal segment within Barrett esophagus (BE) tissue. The expression of the two pleiotrophic proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α, is enhanced in the intestinal epithelium of BE, which places this epithelium at a higher risk for developing malignancy. BE is characterized by a distinct Th-2 predominant cytokine profile (IL-4 and -10), compared to the proinflammatory nature of RE (interferone-γ). Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, lansoprazole reduces the mucosal levels of IL-8 mRNA and protein in GERD, including RE and NERD. This may occur in part through an anti-inflammatory action of proton pump inhibitors beyond gastric acid inhibition.
The proton pump inhibitor, lansoprazole, is reported to have acid secretion inhibiting effect as well as anti-inflammatory effects such as inhibition of cytokine secretion from inflammatory cells. Clinically, excellent efficacy of lansoprazole is reported for not only gastric ulcer but also gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Since GERD is categorized endoscopically into erosive esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease, it is important to make accurate assessment of any improvement in the inflammatory process when using endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) capable of visualizing the submucosal structure. We report here our experience in assessing the effect of treatment with lansoprazole on esophageal wall structure using EUS in patients with GERD. At baseline (before treatment), EUS showed abnormalities in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria caused by inflammation, thickening of the entire esophageal wall and changes in the contractile properties of esophageal smooth muscles reflecting the effects of inflammation on the entire wall of the lower esophagus in reflux esophagitis regardless of whether it is erosive or endoscopically-negative. Treatment with lansoprazole resulted in normalization of esophageal wall structure and improvement of motility, suggesting that lansoprazole improves not only mucosal inflammation but also submucosal inflammation in GERD.
This study aims to determine the levels of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) in patients with Type 2 diabetic patients with and without ischemic heart disease (IHD) and to find for a possible association between circulating CML and a number of clinical parameters including lipids, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in Type 2 diabetic IHD patients. Serum CML levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal anti-CML antibodies. Serum levels of CML and MDA were assessed in 60 IHD patients with Type 2 diabetes, 43 IHD patients without Type 2 diabetes, 64 Type 2 diabetics without IHD, and 80 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. Correlations studies between CML levels and lipids, HbA1c, and lipid peroxidation were performed in Type 2 diabetes patients with and without IHD. A statistical significance was observed in the levels of serum glucose, lipids (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol), MDA, HbA1c, CML and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05) between the groups of the study. CML levels were significantly increased in diabetic IHD patients compared with Type 2 diabetes patients but without IHD (537.1 ± 86.1 vs 449.7 ± 54.9, p<0.001). A positive correlation was observed between serum levels of CML and MDA, r = 0.338 (p = 0.008) in Type 2 diabetes patients with IHD. However, age, HbA1c and lipids had no significant influence on CML levels among diabetics (p>0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effect of both diabetes and oxidative stress on the higher levels of circulating CML. These results showed that increased serum levels of CML are associated with the development of IHD in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The healing activity of the ethanol extracts of Piper betel, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellerica, and Terminalia chebula against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration has been studied and compared with that of misoprostol. Compared to autohealing, all the drugs accelerated the healing process, albeit to different extents. The relative healing activities of the extracts was P. betel>E. officinalis>T. bellerica~T. chebula, that correlated well with their in vivo antioxidant and mucin augmenting activities. The excellent healing activity of the extracts of P. betel and E. officinalis indicated a major role of mucin protection and regeneration in the healing of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs mediated stomach ulceration.
We investigated whether pretreatment with geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a potent heat shock protein (HSP) inducer, could inhibit proinflammatory cytokine liberation and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine macrophages. The levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) released from murine macrophage RAW 264 cells were increased dose- and time-dependently following treatment with LPS (1 μg/ml). GGA (80 μM) treatment 2 h before LPS addition significantly suppressed TNF-α and NO productions at 12 h and 24 h after LPS, respectively, indicating that GGA inhibits activation of macrophages. However, replacement by fresh culture medium before LPS treatment abolished the inhibitory effect of GGA on NO production in LPS-treated cells. Furthermore, GGA inhibited both HSP70 and inducible NO synthase expressions induced by LPS treatment despite an HSP inducer. When it was examined whether GGA interacts with LPS and/or affects expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 on the cell surface, GGA inhibited the binding of LPS to the cell surface, while GGA did not affect TLR4 and CD14 expressions. These results indicate that GGA suppresses the binding of LPS to the cell surface of macrophages, resulting in inhibiting signal transduction downstream of TLR4.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has been widely commercially available in Japan as a dietary and health supplement since 2001 and is used for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases induced by free radicals and aging. We evaluated CoQ10 supplements to ensure that these supplements can be used effectively and safely. Commercially available products were selected and assessed by the quality control tests specified in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia XV. When the disintegration time of CoQ10 supplements was measured, a few tested supplements did not completely disintegrate even after incubation in water for an hour at 37°C. In the content test, many samples were well controlled. However, a few supplements showed low recovery rates of CoQ10 as compared to manufacturer's indicated contents. Among soft capsule and liquid supplements, the reduced form of CoQ10 (H2CoQ10), as well as the oxidized form, was detected by HPLC with electrochemical detector. The results for experimental formulated CoQ10 supplements demonstrated that H2CoQ10 was produced by the interaction of CoQ10 with vitamins E and/or C. From these results, we concluded that quality varied considerably among the many supplement brands containing CoQ10. Additionally, we also demonstrated that H2CoQ10 can be detected in some foods as well as in CoQ10 supplements.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The article published in J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 2007, 41(2), 132-138 was withdrawn by the Editors on August 9, 2010, because it was not original work and constituted a breach of journal’s ethical policy.
Uyaku (Lindera strychnifolia, Sieb. et Zucc.) is used in traditional Asian medicine to treat stomach and renal diseases, neuralgia, rheumatism, and aging. In this study, the effects of lyophilized extracts on hydroxyl (·OH) and superoxide (O2·−) radicals were examined using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer with the spin trap, 5,5'-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide. Inhibitory effects were assessed using the following reagents: for nitric oxide (NO·), the Griess reagent; for (Fe2+ + H2O2)-induced lipid peroxidation, 2-thiobarbituric acid; for (Fe2+ + H2O2)-induced protein carbonyl, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Analysis of ESR data of the extracts indicated the direct ·OH and O2·− scavenging. The extracts scavenged NO· in a dose-dependent manner, inhibited lipid peroxidation of linolenic acid, and protein carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin. In conclusion, the Uyaku leaf hot-water extract has potent scavenging activity against reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. These results might contribute to understanding age-associated or free radical-related diseases induced by excess reactive oxygen and also nitrogen species.