Currently, a standard third-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication remains to be established. Quinolones show good oral absorption, no major side effects, and marked activity against H. pylori. Several authors have studied quinolone-based third-line therapy and reported encouraging results, with the reported H. pylori cure rates ranging from 60% to 84%. Resistance to quinolones is easily acquired, and the resistance rate is relatively high in countries with a high consumption rate of these drugs. We recently reported a significant difference in the eradication rate obtained between patients infected with gatifloxacin-susceptible and gatifloxacin-resistant H. pylori, suggesting that the selection of quinolones for third-line therapy should be based on the results of drug susceptibility testing. As other alternatives of third-line rescue therapies, rifabutin-based triple therapy, high-dose proton pump inhibitor/amoxicillin therapy and furazolidone-based therapy have been suggested.
1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3], the most active form of vitamin D3, and its analogues have therapeutic benefits for prostate cancer treatment. However, the development of hypercalcemia is an obstacle to clinical applications of 1α,25(OH)2D3 for cancer therapy. In this study, we provide evidence that menthol, a key component of peppermint oil, increases an anti-proliferation activity of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We found that menthol per se does not exhibit antiproliferative activity, but it is able to enhance 1α,25(OH)2D3-mediated growth inhibition in LNCaP cells. Fluorometric assays using Fura-2 showed that 1α,25(OH)2D3 does not induce acute Ca2+ response, whereas menthol evokes an increase in [Ca2+]i, which suggests that cross-talks of menthol-induced Ca2+ signaling with 1α,25(OH)2D3-mediated growth inhibition pathways. In addition, Western blot analysis revealed that 1α,25(OH)2D3 and menthol cooperatively modulate the expression of bcl-2 and p21 which provides the insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhanced 1α,25(OH)2D3-mediated growth inhibition by menthol. Thus, our findings suggest that menthol may be a useful natural compound to enhance therapeutic effects of 1α,25(OH)2D3.
The aim of the current study was to determine if induction of metallothionein (MT) via acute or chronic dietary zinc supplementation attenuates intestinal inflammation, and to investigate the relationship with site-specific intestinal MT determined by immunolocalization. Growing rats were assigned to zinc-deficient (ZD), acute zinc-treated (ZT), pair-fed, control or chronic Zn-supplemented (ZS) groups. Half the rats in each dietary group received 5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in their drinking water for 4 days. DSS treatment produced acute intestinal inflammation in the colon only, however, dietary zinc deficiency, acute zinc treatment or chronic zinc supplementation did not alter the severity of ulceration. Serum zinc concentrations were attenuated in the DSS-challenged ZT and ZS groups suggesting that zinc was being utilized in some capacity in response to inflammation. DSS-challenge induced MT immunostaining in the colonic submucosa, however, MT was not associated with histological improvements in the present study. The site-specific MT induction in colonic submucosa during intestinal inflammation requires further clarification as a component of the host defense.
As previously reported, the cerebral arterioles are surrounded by unique perivascular Mato cells. They contain many inclusion bodies rich in hydrolytic enzymes, and have strong uptake capacity. They are thus considered scavenger cells of vascular and neural tissues in steady-state. In this study, employing hypertensive SHR-SP (Izm) rats, the viability of Mato cells was investigated. In hypertensive rats, the capacity for uptake of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and the activity of acid phosphatase (ACPase) of Mato cells were markedly reduced, and on electron-microscopic examination Mato cells were found to include heterogeneous contents and appeared electron-dense and degenerated. Vascular cells exhibited some signs of pathology. However, in hypertensive rats fed chow containing 0.25% cocoa, the uptake capacity and ACPase activity of Mato cells for HRP were enhanced, and on electron-microscopic examination Mato cells appeared healthy, with mitochondria with nearly normal profiles. Signs of pathology in vascular cells were also decreased. Superoxides may impair Mato cells and vascular cells.
White rice is an indispensable staple food in Japan, although it is a high glycemic index food. The objective of this study was to estimate how barley cooked with white rice might affect postprandial glucose, insulin and desacyl ghrelin concentrations as well as fullness. The study was conducted in randomized crossover design with nine healthy subjects. Blood glucose, insulin, free fatty acid and desacyl ghrelin concentrations and subjective levels of fullness and hunger were measured for 240 min after intake of glucose, white rice, 30% rolled barley (30BAR), 50% rolled barley (50BAR) and 100% rolled barley (100BAR) containing 75 g of available carbohydrate. Postprandial glucose and insulin levels were suppressed by intake of 30BAR, 50BAR and 100BAR comparing with those of white rice. Area under the curves of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations was reduced by barley intake in a dose-dependent manner. Although plasma desacyl ghrelin levels decreased postprandially, the degree of reduction was suppressed by barley intake in a dose-dependent manner. Postprandial desacyl ghrelin levels can be a sensitive biomarker of carbohydrate metabolism. The combination of white rice with barley plays a beneficial role in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes, obesity and other metabolic diseases.
We previously reported that the plasma level of endotoxin and colonic expression of IgA in the mouse increased with obstructive jaundice induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). To elucidate the mechanism of the BDL-induced increase, we analyzed the effect of BDL on intestinal flora in wild type and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-deficient mice (iNOS−/−) using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) and 16S rDNA clone libraries. The amounts of bacterial DNA detected in fecal samples from both animal groups pretreated with antibiotics were extremely low as compared with untreated groups. We found that the profiles of enteric bacteria changed markedly after BDL. The bacterial composition is significantly different between not only wild type and iNOS−/− mice but also those before and after BDL, respectively. Among enteric bacteria examined, Lactobacillus murinus was found to increase markedly after BDL in rectum of both animal groups. However, Escherichia coli markedly increased after BDL in the iNOS−/− mice. These findings suggest that profiles of enteric flora change markedly in animals during obstructive jaundice by some mechanism that is affected by bile constituents and iNOS-derived NO.
The purpose was to examine the effects of a 3-day dietary change from a high-carbohydrate (C) to high-fat (F) diet on muscle triglyceride (MTG) storage and utilization during the swimming exercise in rats. Rats were meal-fed on either the F diet or the C diet for 11 days. For an additional 3 days, half of the rats in each group were fed the same diets and the other rats were switched to counterpart diets. On the final day, half of the rats in each group were killed before the exercise and the others were killed after the exercise. Serum concentrations of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) were higher in the post-exercise groups than in the pre-exercise groups. The tissue glycogen contents were lower in the post-exercise groups. However, the MTG contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions were not influenced by the exercise and dietary change. The F diet increased the FFA concentration and slightly increased the MTG content. Moreover, the dietary FA composition influenced the FA composition of the MTG. These results suggest that the exercise did not affect the contents and FA composition of MTG, but that the F diet had an effect on the MTG contents and FA composition.
Gastro-intestinal mucosal cells have a potent mechanism to eliminate a variety of pathogens using enzymes that generate reactive oxygen species and/or nitric oxide (NO). However, a large number of bacteria survive in the intestine of human subjects. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a Gram-positive bacterium that survives not only in the intestinal lumen but also within macrophages generating NO. It has been reported that E. faecalis generated the superoxide radical (O2−). To elucidate the role of O2− and NO in the mechanism for the pathogen surviving in the intestine and macrophages, we studied the role and metabolism of O2− and NO in and around E. faecalis. Kinetic analysis revealed that E. faecalis generated 0.5 μmol O2−/min/108 cells in a glucose-dependent manner as determined using the cytochrome c reduction method. The presence of NOC12, an NO donor, strongly inhibited the growth of E. faecalis without affecting in the oxygen consumption. However, the growth rate of NOC12-pretreated E. faecalis in NO-free medium was similar to that of untreated cells. Western blotting analysis revealed that the NOC12-treated E. faecalis revealed a large amount of nitrotyrosine-posititive proteins; the amounts of the modified proteins were higher in cytosol than in membranes. These observations suggested that O2− generated by E. faecalis reacted with NO to form peroxinitrite (ONOO−) that preferentially nitrated tyrosyl residues in cytosolic proteins, thereby reversibly inhibited cellular growth. Since E. faecalis survives even within macrophages expressing NO synthase, similar metabolism of O2− and NO may occur in and around phagocytized macrophages.
The urinary concentrations of 8-isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), which are biomarkers of oxidative stress, were measured in 677 Japanese people without any diseases, and their correlations with lifestyle facotrs, lifestyle-related blood biochemical parameters, and dietary intake of antioxidative vitamins were investigated. The mean urinary concentration of 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG was 0.58 ng/mg creatinine and 8.43 ng/mg creatinine, respectively. Mean urinary 8-isoprostane was significantly different in terms of age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption but not different in terms of body mass index (BMI) and exercise. By multiple regression analysis, urinary 8-isoprostane was significantly influenced by smoking and age. On the other hand, mean urinary 8-OHdG showed differences only by age group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that urinary 8-OHdG was significantly influenced by age, smoking, body weight, levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol in females, although it was significantly influenced by body weight in males. The present study shows that urinary 8-isoprostane is associated with lipid peroxidation related-lifestyles such as smoking, and urinary 8-OHdG is associated with arteriosclerosis related-factors such as Hs-CRP. Our findings suggest that 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG appear to be prospective biomarkers for early prediction of lifestyle related-disease risk at the population level.
The overexpression of murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is found in several human tumors, and increased expression of MDM2 inactivates the apoptotic and cell cycle arrest function of p53. Interleukin-16 (IL-16) is a pleiotrophic cytokine and the properties of IL-16 suggest that it involve in the pathophysiological process of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the expression of MDM2 in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer as well as the effect of H. pylori infection and IL-16 on epithelial cell proliferation and MDM2 expression in gastric cells in vitro. The expression of MDM2 on gastric biopsies was studied immunohistochemistry. AGS cells were incubated with a combination of IL-16 and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Gastric epithelial cell proliferation was studied by BrdU uptake and the expressions of MDM2 were studied by ELISA. There was no significant difference on the expression of MDM2 between with and without H. pylori infected chronic gastritis. In H. pylori infected gastric mucosa; the MDM2 expression was higher on intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer than chronic gastritis. IL-16 administration was increased MDM2 expression and cell proliferation on AGS cells, which was decreased by H. pylori infection. In conclusion, the expression of MDM2 in long-term H. pylori infected gastric mucosa may indicate a risk for carcinogenesis. IL-16 secretion in H. pylori infected mucosa is one of the factors for gastric cancer. The expression of MDM2 on mucosa can be a mediator for gastric cancer.