Recently, toxic α-synuclein oligomer, which can mediate cell-to-cell propagation is suggested to cause sporadic Parkinson disease. α-Synuclein interacts with membrane lipids especially polyunsaturated fatty acids to stabilize its three-dementional structure. Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce their affinity to α-synuclein and peroxidation byproducts might modify α-synuclein. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal derived from n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids was reported to modify α-synuclein to produce a toxic oligomer. Moreover, the accumulation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, which could induce oligomeriztion of α-synuclein, was found in parkinsonian brains. Docosahexaenoic acid, an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids abundant in the neuronal membrane, was also found to enhance α-synuclein oligomerization; however, the precise details of the chemical reaction involved are unclear. Propanoylated lysine, a specific indicator of docosahexaenoic acid oxidation, was increased in neuronal differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing α-synuclein. α-Synuclein might be modified by the peroxidation products and then, is degraded by the autophagy-lysosome system. In addition, in the cells overexpressing α-synuclein, the mitochondrial electrone transfer chain was found to be inhibited. Accumulation of abnormal α-synuclein modified by lipid radicals derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids may be not only an indicator of brain oxidative stress but also causative of neurodegeneration such as Parkinson disease by impairing mitochondrial function.
There are many chemically reactive compounds, including quinone, in living systems and also food. Even after the ingestion of food polyphenols, quinones derived from catechol moieties could form endogenously in the body. Dopaquinone, dopamine quinone, estrogen-derived quinones, tryptamine-4,5-dione, and ubiquinone are examples of an endogenous quinone. These indicate that quinone is ubiquitously formed or present in living systems and food. Quinones can induce a variety of hazardous effects and also could have beneficial physiological effects. This review focuses on the chemical reactivity of quinone toward a biomolecule and its biological action.
Colon cancer prevalence is high worldwide. O-GlcNAcylation has been associated with tumor growth in various tissues, including the colon; however, its link to carcinogenesis is not fully understood. We investigated the association of O-GlcNAcylation with colon carcinogenesis using a 1,2-dimethylhydrazine/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon carcinogenesis model in wild type and O-GlcNAc transferase-transgenic (Ogt-Tg) mice. The incidence of colon cancer was significantly lower in Ogt-Tg than in wild type mice. The colonic length was not shortened in Ogt-Tg mice, and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation was strongly suppressed, indicating that reduction of inflammation might be related to the alleviation of colon carcinogenesis. Dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis mice were used to evaluate the effect of O-GlcNAcylation on inflammation at the maximal inflammation period. In Ogt-Tg mice, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and interleukin-1β mRNA expression were suppressed. Histochemical staining demonstrated shedding of colon epithelial cells in wild type mice a few days after dextran sodium sulfate treatment, whereas they remained essentially intact in Ogt-Tg mice. There were no significant differences on histochemical staining in the remaining epithelia between groups. These data suggest that O-GlcNAcylation could prevent colon carcinogenesis through reducing acute maximum inflammation, suggesting modulation of O-GlcNAcylation as a novel therapeutic option.
Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the cholesterol-lowering potential of β-caryophyllene in a rat model. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding male Wistar rats a high cholesterol and fat diet for 2 weeks. This was followed by oral administration of β-caryophyllene to hypercholesterolemic rats at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg b.w. for 4 weeks. A dose of 30 mg/kg of β-caryophyllene significantly lowered serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and the atherogenic index and significantly increased high density lipoprotein level. Moreover, it ameliorated liver injury as evidenced by decreasing hepatomegaly, macrovesicular steatosis and the activity of hepatic marker enzymes alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Furthermore, it increased the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. This dose of β-caryophyllene significantly inhibited the activity of hepatic hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Higher doses (100 and 300 mg/kg) of β-caryophyllene, however, did not induce significant beneficial effects on the studied parameters. These observations demonstrate that β-caryophyllene has a cholesterol-lowering effect on hypercholesterolemic rats, thus offering protection against hypercholesterolemia-induced diseases such as atherosclerosis and fatty liver.
Nanoparticles are widely used as useful industrial materials. Therefore, their possible adverse health effects must be appraised. We assessed and compared the oxidative DNA damage caused by four different nanoparticles (TiO2, NiO, ZnO and CeO2). The effects of the administration methods, intratracheal instillation and inhalation, were also evaluated. Rats were subjected to intratracheal instillations or 4 weeks of inhalation exposure to the nanoparticles, and the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in the lung were analyzed by an HPLC-EC detector method. The 8-OHdG levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner with the inhalation of NiO. ZnO also increased the 8-OHdG levels with inhalation. In comparison with the control, the 8-OHdG levels were significantly and persistently higher with the CeO2 nanoparticle administration, by both intratracheal instillation and inhalation. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the 8-OHdG levels between the control and TiO2 nanoparticle-treated groups, with either intratracheal instillation or inhalation during the observation period. These results indicated that NiO, ZnO and CeO2 nanoparticles generate significant amounts of free radicals, and oxidative stress may be responsible for the lung injury caused by these nanoparticles. In addition, both intratracheal instillation and inhalation exposure induced similar tendencies of oxidative DNA damage with these nanoparticles.
Recent cross-sectional and randomized controlled studies of small sample sizes revealed that regular exercise is effective for improving nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, there has been no large-scale longitudinal study addressing the effect of regular exercise on remission of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Thus, we investigated the impact of exercise on the natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We analyzed 1,010 (860 men and 150 women) Japanese participants who received health checkups repeatedly over 10 years by a historical cohort study and were diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. Regular exercise was defined as participating in any kind of sports at least once a week. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed by ultrasonographic images. During 10 years of follow-up, remission of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was observed in 46.0% (396/860) of men and 48.7% (73/150) of women. In men, the adjusted hazard ratio of regular exercise for remission of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was 1.46 (95% confidence interval 1.10–1.95, p = 0.010). However, this was not significant in women. Exercise at least once a week is implicated in the remission of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in men.
The aim of present study was to investigate the association between plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity, which has gained attention as a novel preventive target of cardiovascular disease, and various physiological parameters and was to determine the effects of habitual exercise on plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity in middle-aged and older women. In the cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity and various physiological parameters in 94 middle-aged and older women. In the interventional study, subjects (n = 22) were divided into two groups: exercise (n = 12) or the control group (n = 10), whereby we examined the effect of 12-week aerobic exercise training on plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity in middle-aged and older women. The cross-sectional study demonstrated that plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity was significantly associated with various physiological parameters, including visceral fat and daily step counts. In the interventional study, the plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity significantly decreased after the 12-week aerobic exercise training, its changes were inversely associated with the changes in daily step counts. Our results revealed that the plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity was associated with visceral fat accumulation and lack of exercise, and it was decreased by the aerobic exercise training.
Pulse pressure amplification (i.e., the ratio of peripheral to central pulse pressure) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events. Circulating free fatty acid, which is a major cause of insulin resistance, has been reported to favorably be associated with pulse pressure amplification in the arm (from the aorta to brachial artery). We hypothesized that this paradoxical relationship depended on an evaluating site of pulse pressure amplification and investigated whether serum free fatty acid level is related to pulse pressure amplification in the arm or trunk (from the aorta to femoral artery) in overweight/obese men. In a cross-sectional study, 85 men participated, and regression analyses revealed that serum free fatty acid level was significantly and independently associated with pulse pressure amplification in the arm but not the trunk. In a longitudinal study, 33 men completed a 12-week lifestyle intervention that involved both exercise training and dietary modification. The lifestyle intervention-induced change in serum free fatty acid level was significantly correlated to that in pulse pressure amplification in the arm but not the trunk. These results support our hypothesis and suggest that pulse pressure amplification should be measured in the trunk instead of the arm in overweight/obese men to simplify its interpretation.
The objective was to evaluate the effect of replacing milk with soymilk or calcium-fortified soymilk as a part of a meal on postprandial serum phosphorus levels. This study had a randomized crossover design. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled and consumed three test meals that contained either milk, soymilk, or calcium-fortified soymilk containing the same amount of calcium as milk. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 min and urine samples were collected from 0 to 360 min after consuming the test meal. Serum phosphorus levels decreased the most after the ingestion of the soymilk meal, and the least after the ingestion of the milk meal. After the ingestion of each meal, serum intact parathyroid hormone levels showed an initial drop followed by a gradual rise, and these changes were more pronounced for the soymilk meal than for the milk meal and the soymilk + calcium meal. Our study shows that replacing milk with soymilk as a part of a meal may suppress the postprandial elevation in serum phosphorus levels, even when the soymilk contains the same amount of calcium as milk.
The purpose was to clarify the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication on the changes in serum lipid levels by comparing subjects with and without continuous H. pylori infection. The study subjects were 774 individuals (males 536, females 238, mean age 52.6 years) who visited between April 2013 and March 2016 for annual medical checkups. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and triglyceride levels, and LDLC/HDLC ratio were compared between the subjects with and without H. pylori infection, as well as those with H. pylori eradication subjects. The HDLC level in the H. pylori-positive group was significantly lower as compared to the H. pylori-negative group. The serum level of HDLC in subjects with successful eradication of H. pylori tended to be higher, while the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDLC, and triglycerides tended to be lower in comparison to subjects with continuous H. pylori infection. In addition, the LDLC/HDLC ratio in the H. pylori-positive group was significantly higher than that in the H. pylori-negative group, and successful H. pylori eradication tended to reduce that ratio. In conclusion, successful eradication of H. pylori may have favorable effects on lipid metabolism.
The gastrointestinal symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are strongly related to impaired quality of life (QOL), especially in diarrhea-predominant. The gene polymorphisms associated with serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine, alter gastrointestinal symptoms and mental status. We aimed to evaluate the effects of gene polymorphisms on gastrointestinal symptoms, psychological conditions, and QOL, and compare these between patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (n = 62) and healthy controls (n = 64). The gene polymorphisms of 5-HTTLPR, 5-HTTVNTR, TPH1 rs453773, and TPH1 rs211105 were evaluated. Gastrointestinal symptoms, depressive state, and QOL were assessed using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale, and Short-Form-36. Gene polymorphisms did not significantly differ in frequency between the two groups. The scores for diarrhea, abdominal pain, and indigestion significantly correlated with the physical component summary score. Only the group of patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome showed a significant correlation between the TPH1 rs211105 T/T genotype and lower scores for role physical and mental health, and higher scores for indigestion and diarrhea. 5-HTTLPR l/s was associated with lower score of role emotional in the diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and higher scores in the controls. The gene polymorphisms of 5-hydroxytryptamine signaling effected gastrointestinal symptoms and QOL, especially of the patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.
Although chronic constipation is common, colonic functional evaluating tests are uncommon. This study examines whether chronic constipation and gastrointestinal symptoms are correlated with the lateral diameter of the colon measured from MRI images. We included chronic constipation patients in a prospective, cross-sectional study using MRI at three centers. We divided 3D MRI colorectal images into 6 segments using with specified sequences and selected the maximum luminal diameter from each segment. We used the GSRS questionnaire to evaluate gastrointestinal symptoms. We evaluated the correlation between luminal diameters and GSRS scores. We found the following positive correlations: descending colon and unsatisfactory defecation symptoms; sigmoid colon and diarrhea; and rectum and constipation. The sum and ratio of the ascending and sigmoid colon diameters correlated with nausea and diarrhea. The sum of the transvers to the sigmoid colon diameter also correlated with nausea and diarrhea. The sum of all segment diameters correlated with nausea and constipation. In conclusion, we showed cross-sectional study of colonic MRI correlate with gastrointestinal symptoms. MRI might be useful for colonic motility evaluations to determine appropriate constipation treatments (Clinical trial registry number UMIN 000021274).