We measured the energy expenditure weekly in patients undergoing a pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy for bile duct cancer or pancreatic tumors. Twelve patients (5 women and 7 men; mean age 70.1 years) were enrolled in this study, and their resting energy expenditure levels were determined by indirect calorimetry. In these patients, a significant correlation was observed between the measured resting energy expenditures and the predicted resting energy expenditures calculated by the Harris-Benedict equation. The resting energy expenditures measured before surgery were almost the same as the predicted resting energy expenditures (measured resting energy expenditure: 22.4 ± 3.9 kcal/kg/day vs predicted resting energy expenditure: 21.7 ± 2.0 kcal/kg/day). The measured resting energy expenditure/predicted resting energy expenditure ratio, which reflects the stress factor, was 1.02 ± 0.10. After the pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy, a significant increase in energy expenditure was observed, and the measured resting energy expenditure was 25.7 ± 3.5 kcal/kg/day on postoperative day 7 and 25.4 ± 4.9 kcal/kg/day on postoperative day 14. The measured resting energy expenditure/predicted resting energy expenditure ratio was 1.16 ± 0.14 on postoperative day 7, and 1.16 ± 0.18 on postoperative day 14 respectively. In conclusion, patients undergoing a pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy showed a hyper-metabolic status as evaluated by their measured resting energy expenditure/predicted resting energy expenditure ratio. From our observations, we recommend that nutritional management based on 30 kcal/body weight/day (calculated by the measured resting energy expenditure×activity factor 1.2–1.3) may be optimal for patients undergoing a pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy.
Effect of caffeic acid on the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals via the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system pathway was examined. The electron spin resonance spin trapping showed that 1-hydroxyethyl radicals form in the control reaction mixture which contained 0.17 M ethanol, 1 mg protein/ml rat river microsomes, 0.1 M α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone, 5 mM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and 30 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). When the electron spin resonance spectra of the control reaction mixtures with caffeic acid were measured, caffeic acid inhibited the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals in a concentration dependent manner. Gallic acid, dopamine, l-dopa, chlorogenic acid and catechin also inhibited the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals. Above results indicated that the catechol moiety is essential to the inhibitory effect. Caffeic acid seems to chelate of iron ion at the catechol moiety. Indeed, the inhibitory effect by caffeic acid was greatly diminished in the presence of desferrioxamine, a potent iron chelator which removes iron ion in the Fe (III)-caffeic acid complex. Since Fe (III)-desferrioxamine complex is active for the 1-hydroxyethyl radicals formation, caffeic acid inhibits the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals in the reaction mixture partly through its metal chelating activity.
Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg−1 d−1), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg−1 d−1) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg−1 d−1) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass.
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves are consumed as vegetables around the world, especially in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of sweet potato leaves on low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro and in human subjects. We compared the antioxidant activity of 8 kinds of sweet potato leaves. Every sweet potato leaf had high radical scavenging activity and prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. We found that sweet potato leaves contained abundant polyphenol compounds and the radical scavenging activity and prolongation rate of lag time were highly correlated with total polyphenol content. We also confirmed that thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production was increased in endothelial cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, which was decreased by treatment with sweet potato leaves. We further measured the low-density lipoprotein oxidizability in 13 healthy volunteers after their intake of 18 g of “Suioh”, raw sweet potato leaves. “Suioh” prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation and decreased low-density lipoprotein mobility. These results suggest that sweet potato leaves have antioxidant activity leading to the suppression of low-density lipoprotein oxidation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of antioxidant biofactor (AOB) on reactive oxygen species (ROS). Generation of superoxide radical (O2•−) and hydroxyl radical (•OH) was determined using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping method. AOB was added at different concentrations to these free radical generating systems. The generation of both O2•− and •OH was scavenged by the addition of AOB in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that AOB has strong antioxidant properties against these radicals. We further investigated the anti-oxidative effect of AOB on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). HGFs were treated for 3 h with α-MEM containing a combination of AOB and H2O2 (AOB + H2O2 group), containing H2O2 (H2O2 group), or containing AOB alone (AOB group). Non-stimulated HGFs were used as a control group. The number of surviving cells was in the order of the AOB group > control group > AOB + H2O2 group > H2O2 group. The level of expression of type I collagen mRNA and production of collagen were also in the order of the AOB group > control group > AOB + H2O2 group > H2O2 group. In conclusion, our results suggest that AOB may protect HGFs against oxidative stress by reducing stress-induced ROS.
The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of 1H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake.
Sepsis commonly occurs in severe post-burn patients, often resulting in death. We aimed to evaluate the influence of early enteral feeding on outcomes in patients with extensive burns, including infection incidence, healing and mortality. We retrospectively reviewed 60 patients with extensive burns, 35 who had received early enteral nutrition and 25 who had received parenteral nutrition. Average healing time, infection incidence and mortality were clinically observed. Hemoglobin and serum albumin were monitored weekly in both groups during treatment. Causative organisms were identified in patients with sepsis. Infection incidence was significantly less in the enteral nutrition group than the parenteral nutrition group (17.1% vs 44.0%; p = 0.023); and latency duration was longer in the enteral nutrition group than in the parenteral nutrition group (30.5 ± 4.7 days vs 14.5 ± 2.3 days; p<0.001). Duration of antibiotic therapy of the enteral nutrition group was significantly shorter than that of the parenteral nutrition group (12.5 ± 3.0 days vs 19.8 ± 3.6 days; p<0.001). Mean hemoglobin results (10.1 ± 1.3 g/L vs 8.3 ± 1.5 g/L; p<0.001) and serum albumin results (44.7 ± 5.7 g/L vs 36.2 ± 6.9 g/L; p<0.001) of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition groups, respectively, provided an overview of systemic nutrition and protein metabolism, suggesting higher systemic nutrition and protein synthesis in enteral nutrition group than in parenteral nutrition group. Risk of post-burn infection is reduced in burn patients who are supported by earliest possible enteral nutrition.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding is widely used for patients with swallowing dysfunction and a history of repeated aspiration pneumonitis. However, liquid nutrient feeding via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is not effective enough to prevent aspiration pneumonitis and related inflammatory responses. We performed this prospective multi-centre study to clarify the efficacy of half-solidification of nutrients to prevent fever possibly caused by aspiration pneumonitis in elderly patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. The study subjects were 42 elderly patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding (mean age 85.8 years). All subjects were fed half-solid as well as liquid nutrients for 8 weeks respectively in a cross over design. We counted the number of days with fever caused by pneumonitis and unidentified origin. Thirty-two of 42 patients were successfully observed in both nutrient periods. Fever was frequently observed in both nutrient periods, however, the percentage of observational days with fever during half-solid nutrient feeding was significantly lower than that during liquid nutrient feeding (15.3 ± 0.3 vs 19.8 ± 0.4%, p = 0.030). The percentage of observational days when patients had diarrhea was not significantly different (10.1 ± 3.8 vs 7.2 ± 3.2%, p = 0.357). In conclusion, half-solid nutrient feeding was determined to be effective for reducing fever in patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding.
Polyamines are molecules involved in cell growth and differentiation and are produced by bacterial metabolism. However, their production and effects by the microbiota selected by fructooligosaccharides consumption are controversial. In this study, we investigated the influence of supplementation of fructooligosaccharides on the cecal polyamine production by the microflora selected, and its effect on gut maturation in newborn piglets. Twenty piglets were fed a control formula (n = 10) or a formula supplemented with fructooligosaccharides (8 g/l) (n = 10) for 13 days. Colony-forming unit’s count of cecal content was done in different media. Several intestinal development parameters were measured as well as the polyamine concentration in the cecal mucosa and cecal content. A dose-dependent study on in vitro polyamine production by fructooligosaccharides addition to the isolated cecal content was performed. Bifidogenic activity of fructooligosaccharides increased polyamine concentration in the cecal content, mainly putrescine, with no beneficial effect on gut maturation. Bifidobacterium spp. were able to produce polyamines, but they were not the most significant bacterial producer of polyamines in the cecum of piglets fed fructooligosaccharides. Bifidogenic activity of fructooligosaccharides did not lead to an increase in gut maturation in piglets of 15 days of age although polyamines were increased in the cecal content.
Resveratrol, a phytoalexin present in the skin of grapes and red wine, has been demonstrated to possess a wide range of health promoting activities including anti-diabetic properties. In the present study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol in both type 2 diabetic mice and cell culture systems. In cultured L6 myotubes, we studied the effect of resveratrol on glucose uptake and translocation of glucose transporter 4 to plasma membrane from the aspects of insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase signaling. In cultured RIN-5F cells, we examined whether resveratrol would protect the pancreas-derived β-cells from oxidative stress. Resveratrol significantly suppressed the elevation in the fasting blood glucose level and the serum triglyceride and lipid peroxide levels in db/db mice. Resveratrol stimulated glucose uptake and glucose transporter 4 translocation by activating both insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase signaling. Moreover, resveratrol could protect pancreatic β-cells from advanced glycation end products-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. From these results, resveratrol is suggested to show anti-diabetic effect by stimulating both insulin-dependent and -independent glucose uptake in muscles and by protecting pancreatic β-cells from advanced glycation end products-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid has been widely used. We evaluated small bowel and gastric injuries during acetylsalicylic acid administration using video capsule endoscopy and gastroduodenal endoscopy. We also investigated blood flow using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Six healthy volunteers were enrolled in this preliminary study. The subjects were administered 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin daily for 14 days. Video capsule endoscopy and gastroduodenal endoscopy were simultaneously performed before administration and on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed before administration and on day 2, and 8. Video capsule endoscopy after administration of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid revealed small bowel mucosal damages of petechiae and erythema in all cases, and denuded area in one case. The total number of lesions in the small bowel increased according to duration of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid administration. However, the total number of lesions in the stomach peaked on day 3. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography showed that the time-intensity curve peak value and Areas under the curves after acetylsalicylic acid administration were reduced. We observed not only gastric mucosal injuries but also small intestinal injuries with short-term low-dose acetylsalicylic acid administration. Acetylsalicylic acid administration also caused a decrease in small intestinal blood flow. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is useful for evaluation blood flow in the small bowel mucosa.
Effects of α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols on the proliferation and invasion of AH109A hepatoma cells and their modes of action were investigated. Four tocopherols inhibited the invasion as well as the proliferation of AH109A cells. Their inhibitory effects were more prominent on the invasion than on the proliferation. At 1 μM, α-tocopherol showed most potent anti-invasive activity without any influence on the proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that reactive oxygen species increase the invasion of AH109A cells. α-Tocopherol suppressed the reactive oxygen species-induced invasion but failed to suppress the reactive oxygen species-induced rises in intracellular peroxide level. GF 109203X, a protein kinase C inhibitor, decreased the invasive activity of AH109A cells. In contrast, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, a protein kinase C activator, increased the invasive capacity of AH109A cells. α-Tocopherol suppressed the phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced increase in the invasion, and canceled the phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced rises in protein kinase C activity and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. These results suggest that tocopherols, especially α-tocopherol, possess inhibitory effect more strongly on the invasion of AH109A cells than on the proliferation. They also suggest that the anti-invasive activity of α-tocopherol is raised through suppression of PKC/ERK signaling.