Two Shiga toxin (Stx) genes (stx-1 and stx-2) were cloned and sequenced from a strain of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, serotype O157:H7, a clinical isolate from the Gifu City, Japan, outbreak in 1996 (GPU96MM). The 1, 257 by of stx-1 and 1, 321 by of stx-2 genes were analyzed, and each gene contained two open reading frames (ORFs), 948 or 960 by of A and 270 by of B subunits, respectively. Although the nucleotide sequences of stx-1 ORFs of this isolate had several nucleotide alterations, the deduced amino acid sequence was identical to that of stx-1 from E. coli (O157:H7) isolated from Canada and stx from Shigella dysenteriae type 1. The nucleotide sequences of the stx-2 ORFs of this strain were identical to those of stx-2 from two E. coli (O157:H7) strains, KNIH317 isolated from Korea and 933.
The influence of seed suspension of Trigonella foenum graceum (commonly known as fenugreek) was investigated for wound healing properties in excision, incision, and dead space wound models in rats. The seed suspension of T. foenum graceum 1ml/kg was given either topically or orally once a day. The granulation tissues formed were removed after 4, 8, 12, and 16 days of post excision wounding; and biochemical parameters such as DNA, total protein, total collagen, and hexosamine were estimated. The suspension increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increases in DNA, protein, and collagen contents of the granulation tissues. Quicker and better maturation and cross-linking of collagen was ob-served in the suspension-treated rats, as indicated by the high stability of acid soluble collagen and increase in aldehyde content and tensile strength. The orally treated wound was found to epithelize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was higher, as compared with the control wounds. The results show that T. foenum graceum produced different actions on the various phases of wound repair.
The chemoprotective efficacy of selenium, a dietary micronutrient, against chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats was investigated. Carcinogenesis was performed by a single intraperitoneal injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN, 200mg/kg body weight) with phenobarbital (0.05%) as a promoter in rats. When selenium-supplemented (4ppm) drinking water was provided ad libitum throughout the experimental period, before the initiation, or during the promotion period it was found to be effective in elevating hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity to a statistically significant level measured either in hyperplastic nodules or in the non-nodular surrounding tissue compared with the level of the carcinogen control. Selenium treatment also in-creased the activity of this enzyme in kidney, lung, and erythrocytes to a significant level compared with the tissue or cell levels of the carcinogen control rats. A decrease in the number and size of hyperplastic nodules was observed in the selenium-treated groups. Hence, a direct correlation may be made between the hepatic selenium content with the formation of hyperplastic nodules and non-nodular surrounding liver tissues. Our results further confirm the fact that selenium is particularly protective in limiting the action of DEN during the initiation phase of hepatocarcinogenesis.
N-Glycan structures of Type I cryoglobulin in 3 different samples are reported in detail. The three sample cryoglobulins were purified from sera of monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) 1-κ type cryoglobulinemia: two of them from patients with multiple myeloma (cases 1 and 2) and one from a patient with Sjögren's syndrome (case 3). Asparagine-linked glycan portions of these cryoglobulins were released by digestion with glycoamidase A (from sweet almond), and the reducing ends of the N-glycans were reductively aminated with 2-aminopyridine. The derivatized N-glycans were separated and structurally identified by a multi-dimensional mapping technique on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns. The HPLC profiles of N-glycans from these patients were compared with that profile from healthy persons. The N-glycan molecules from the 3 different IgG proteins revealed individually abnormal profiles. A glycoform containing 2 galactose residues predominated in case 1. In contrast, no galactose was found in the predominant glycoforms in cases 2 and 3. Moreover, an unusually high content of bisecting N-acetylglucosamine characterized one of the predominant glycoforms in case 2. In spite of these striking N-glycan abnormalities, no clear mechanism that could cause cryoglobulinemia was found.
Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of disturbed energy homeostasis caused by a deficiency of insulin or of its action and resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The aim of this study was to study, by use of different anthropometrical parameters, the effect of diabetes mellitus either controlled or non-controlled on the growth pattern of the Egyptian children. At the same time, changes in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis in the studied groups were investigated. The study was carried out on 50 healthy normal children and 127 diabetic children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) aged 2-18 years. They were classified according to their fasting blood glucose level into controlled <150mg/dl and non-controlled 150-300mg/dl. Then they were subdivided according to their age into three subgroups, 2-9, 10-14, 15-18 years. At the start of the study the 2-9-year-old children had been diabetic since 1.8±0.32 years and the 10-18-year-old children, since 3.96±0.12 years. Clinical and some anthropometrical measurements were made including height and weight; and from them the body mass index (BMI) and Z-score for height and weight were calculated. In addition, mid-arm, wrist, head, and chest circumferences were measured. Radio-immunoassay (RIA) techniques for estimation of serum GH and IGF-1 were performed. The results obtained in this study indicated that the longitudinal growth was the parameter, which was more affected in the IDDM children, especially in those with non-controlled disease. The mean±SEM of the Z-score for their height was -1.16±0.27, -1.047±0.18, and -1.68±0.019 for the age groups 2-9, 10-14, and 15-18 years, respectively. The GH/IGF-1 axis was distributed, and GH concentrations were found to be numerically higher in the different age groups of the non-controlled diabetic children than in those of the normal children. Serum IGF-1 levels were significantly reduced among the diabetic patients when compared with those recorded among their counterpart normal children. The reduction in the IGF-1 levels was pronounced in the non-controlled patients. A significant positive correlation was observed between all the anthropometric measurements and IGF-1 concentrations of the adolescents non-controlled diabetic children aged 10-14 years, defining its role in their growth. Thus the disturbed GH/IGF-1 axis in IDDM children and adolescents might contribute to their growth failure, mainly in the non-controlled patients.
The atherogenic process is influenced by the levels of different plasma lipoproteins, and epidemiological studies have shown a positive relationship between increased levels of serum total cholesterol and coronary heart disease (CHD). Thus, it becomes essential to establish normal levels of serum lipids for the respective range of population, for the normal level of one group cannot be accepted for that of another. Moreover, lipid ranges for the various age groups of Indians are scanty. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to study the lipid levels in the middle-aged female population of urban Baroda and the influence of life style factors on them. One hundred and twenty-five middle-aged female subjects (30-50 years) were enrolled from the five administrative wards of Baroda. Their background, clinical, and dietary information were collected through a structured questionnaire. Fasting venous blood samples were drawn, and the serum was used for analysis of fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. The results showed that the mean total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were 177mg/dl, 46mg/dl, 98mg/dl, and 31mg/dl, respectively. The dietary data indicated that the mean caloric intake of the subjects was 1, 464kcal (78% of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Indians), with fat intake being twice the amount of RDA (≥60g fat/day). Also, when the lipid profile of the subjects was studied in relation to the type of diet consumed, we found that those consuming non-vegetarian foods had non-significantly higher TC and triglyceride (TG) levels compared with vegetarians. The prevalence of obesity based on body mass index (BMI)≥25 was 39%, and that based on the waist/hip ratio (WHR)≥0.85 was 15%. This indicates a high prevalence of general and central obesity in these middle-aged female subjects. Daily exercise had a positive impact on lipid profile, as indicated by an increase in the HDL-C, which has a cardioprotective function.