Because rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease, the patients often recognize side-effects due to the medication, alternative therapeutic strategies might potentially offer a clinical advantage. We evaluated the effect of nucleoprotein from salmon soft roe on animal model of arthritis. Mice transgenic for human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1 Tg) were divided into three experimental groups and supplemented on either nucleoprotein-free (nonNP), or 0.6% or 1.2% nucleoprotein mixed (NP0.6 or NP1.2) diet for 3 months. The mice were evaluated arthritis by morphology, and measured with rheumatoid factor (RF). Moreover, macrophages and oxidative metabolites were assessed in the ankle and/or serum. Anti-oxidative potentials in nucleoprotein were determined with biological anti-oxidative potential (BAP) test, and electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis. NonNP-diet HTLV-1 Tg mice increased an arthritis symptoms and RF. The symptoms were ameliorated in NP-diet groups. Macrophages detected by F4/80 staining, and oxidative metabolites in the serum and/or joints were clearly decreased in 1.2% NP-diet HTLV-1 Tg mice. Nucleoprotein and DNA-nucleotide, but less protamine, had direct anti-oxidative potency with BAP test and/or ESR in vitro. These observations suggest that dietary nucleoprotein ameliorates arthritis symptoms in HTLV-1 Tg mice and offers hope as an alternative treatment for this debilitating medical condition.
Cellobiose is produced from cellulose using specific bacterial enzymes, and is hydrolyzed into glucose by the enzymes cellobiosidase and cellulase. In this study, we examined the effects of cellobiose on colonic mucosal damage in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model. BALB/c mice were divided into two groups. In the first group, the mice were fed 3.5% DSS mixed with normal chow. In the second group, the mice were fed 3.5% DSS plus 6.0 or 9.0% (weight/weight) cellobiose mixed with normal chow. The development of colitis was assessed on day 21. Mucosal cytokine expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. Body weight loss was significantly attenuated in the 9.0% cellobiose-fed DSS mice as compared to the DSS mice. Colonic weight/length ratio, a maker of tissue edema, was significantly higher in the DSS mice than in the 9.0% cellobiose-fed DSS mice. The disease activity index and histological colitis score were also significantly higher in the DSS mice than in the 9.0% cellobiose-fed DSS mice. Mucosal mRNA expression for IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-17 and IP-10 were markedly reduced in the 9.0% cellobiose-fed DSS mice. In conclusion, a preventive effect of cellobiose against DSS colitis suggests its clinical use for inflammatory bowel diseases patients.
Peyer’s patches (PPs), a major component of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, serve as important antigen entry sites in mucosal immunity. PPs may play a role in the extension of ulcerative colitis (UC) into the terminal ileum. We sought to clarify the magnified endoscopic findings of the PPs in the terminal ileum of UC patients. Eighteen UC patients underwent magnifying chromoendoscopy before initial treatment to evaluate the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) on the PPs domes and the surrounding villi. In 8 UC patients, as in healthy controls, the PPs’ domes were slightly elevated, covered with the regular FAE lining, and surrounded by dense and bulky villi; however, in 10 UC patients, the PPs’ domes were irregular, and the surrounding villi were sparse and atrophic. These abnormal findings within the PPs were associated with minimal mucosal lesions but not with backwash ileitis; both electron microscopy and magnifying endoscopy confirmed that these lesions were reversible following remission with prednisolone-mesalazine therapy. Similar to Crohn’s disease patients, UC patients commonly had abnormalities in the FAE on PPs’ domes and the surrounding villi on magnifying endoscopy.
Abietic acid (AA), the main component of the rosin fraction of oleoresin synthesized by conifer species, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. AA is a weak contact allergen; however, compounds resulting from its oxidation by air elicit stronger allergic response. Hydrogenation of the conjugated double bonds of AA, as in tetrahydroabietic acid (THAA), decreases its susceptibility to air oxidation and would thus reduce the allergenicity of AA. The aim of this study was to investigate whether THAA could exert anti-inflammatory effects to the same extent as AA in RAW264.7 macrophages activated with the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). THAA and AA inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively, in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. They also inhibited the LPS-induced production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Both THAA and AA prevented the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB/p65 subunit, suggesting that THAA may inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory mediators through the same mechanism as AA. In comparison, the anti-inflammatory effects of THAA and AA were almost identical, indicating that THAA retains the anti-inflammatory activity of AA at least in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages.
Metabolome analyses assisted by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) have allowed us to systematically grasp changes in small molecular metabolites under disease conditions. We applied CE-MS to mine out biomarkers in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. Rat livers were exposed to ischemia by clamping of the portal inlet followed by reperfusion. Metabolomic profiling revealed that l contents of taurine in liver and plasma were significantly increased. Of interest is an elevation of hypotaurine, collectively suggesting significance of hypotaurine/taurine in post-ischemic responses. Considering the anti-oxidative capacity of hypotaurine, we examined if supplementation of the compound or its precursor amino acids could affect hepatocellular viability and contents of taurine in liver and plasma. Administration of hypotaurine, N-acetylcysteine or methionine upon reperfusion comparablly attenuated the post-ischemic hepatocellular injury but with different metabolomic profiling among groups: rats treated with methionine or N-acetylcysteine but not those treated with hypotaurine, exhibited significant elevation of hepatic lactate generation without notable recovery of the energy charge. Furthermore, the group treated with hypotaurine exhibited elevation of the plasma taurine, suggesting that the exogenously administered compound was utilized as an antioxidant. These results suggest that taurine serves as a surrogate marker for ischemia-reperfusion indicating effectiveness of hypotaurine as an energy-saving hepatoprotective amino acid.
The reaction of ram seminal vesicle (RSV) microsomes with arachidonic acid (AA) was examined using electron spin resonance (ESR), high performance liquid chromatography-electron spin resonance spectrometry (HPLC-ESR), and high performance liquid chromatography-electron spin resonance-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESR-MS) combined use of spin trapping technique. A prominent ESR spectrum (αN = 1.58 mT and αHβ = 0.26 mT) was observed in the complete reaction mixture of ram seminal vesicle microsomes with arachidonic acid containing 2.0 mg protein/ml ram seminal vesicle (RSV) microsomal suspension, 0.8 mM arachidonic acid, 0.1 M 4-POBN, and 24 mM tris/HCl buffer (pH 7.4). The ESR spectrum was hardly observed for the complete reaction mixture without the RSV microsomes. The formation of the radical appears to be catalyzed by the microsomal components. In the absence of AA, the intensity of the ESR signal decreased to 16 ± 15% of the complete reaction mixture, suggesting that the radical is derived from AA. For the complete reaction mixture with boiled microsomes, the intensity of the ESR signal decreased to 49 ± 4% of the complete reaction mixture. The intensity of the ESR signal of the complete reaction mixture with indomethacin decreased to 74 ± 20% of the complete reaction mixture, suggesting that cyclooxygenese partly participates in the reaction. A peak was detected on the elution profile of HPLC-ESR analysis of the complete reaction mixture. To determine the structure of the peak, an HPLC-ESR-MS analysis was performed. The HPLC-ESR-MS analysis of the peak showed two prominent ions, m/z 266 and m/z 179, suggesting that the peak is a 4-POBN/pentyl radical adduct. An HPLC-ESR analysis of the authentic 4-POBN/pentyl radical adduct comfirmed the identification.
Metabolic syndrome is characterized by cardiometabolic risk factors that include obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Oxidative stress is known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of hydrogen rich water (1.5–2 L/day) in an open label, 8-week study on 20 subjects with potential metabolic syndrome. Hydrogen rich water was produced, by placing a metallic magnesium stick into drinking water (hydrogen concentration; 0.55–0.65 mM), by the following chemical reaction; Mg + 2H2O → Mg (OH)2 + H2. The consumption of hydrogen rich water for 8 weeks resulted in a 39% increase (p<0.05) in antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a 43% decrease (p<0.05) in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in urine. Further, subjects demonstrated an 8% increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and a 13% decrease in total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol from baseline to week 4. There was no change in fasting glucose levels during the 8 week study. In conclusion, drinking hydrogen rich water represents a potentially novel therapeutic and preventive strategy for metabolic syndrome. The portable magnesium stick was a safe, easy and effective method of delivering hydrogen rich water for daily consumption by participants in the study.
The comparative effects of oryzanol and ferulic acid on the lipid metabolism and antioxidative status of high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given a diet containing 17% fat (HF), supplemented with oryzanol (HF-O) or ferulic acid for 7 weeks. The control mice (NC) were fed with normal diet. The HF mice exhibited increased body weight gain, plasma and hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, and lipid peroxidation rate, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. In general, they also showed lower hepatic antioxidant and higher lipid-regulating enzymes activities relative to that of NC group. Addition of oryzanol or ferulic acid in the diet counteracted these high fat-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress via increased faecal lipid excretion and regulation of antioxidant and lipogenic enzymes activities. This study illustrates that oryzanol and ferulic acid have relatively similar hypolipidemic actions and could be effective in lowering the risk of high fat diet-induced obesity.
Oxidative stress is thought to play a role in the development of insulin resistance. In order to elucidate the molecular effect of oxidative stress on liver insulin signaling, we analyzed the effect of paraquat (1,1-dimethyl-4,4-dipyridynium; PQ)-derived oxidative stress on the expression of insulin-dependent genes and activation of liver insulin signaling pathway. Incubation of primary cultured rat hepatocytes with 2 mM PQ for 6 h impaired the suppressive effect of insulin on insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) gene expression, but did not influence glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression. Insulin-dependent phosphorylation or activation of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt and forkhead in rhabdomyosarcoma were not affected by PQ pre-treatment. In contrast, PQ treatment impaired insulin-dependent phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These results indicate that PQ-induced oxidative stress impairs insulin-dependent mTOR activation and that this impairment probably causes inhibition of insulin-dependent repression of IGFBP-1 expression.
It is accepted that pulmonary exposure of rodents to porcine pancreatic elastase (ELT) induces lesions that morphologically resemble human emphysema. Nonetheless, extensive analysis of this model has rarely been conducted. The present study was designed to extensively examine the effects of ELT on lung inflammation, cell damage, emphysematous change, and cholinergic reactivity in rats. Intratracheal administration of two doses of ELT induced 1) a proinflammatory response in the lung that was characterized by significant infiltration of macrophages and an increased level of interleukin-1β in lung homogenates, 2) lung cell damage as indicated by higher levels of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in lung homogenates, 3) emphysema-related morphological changes including airspace enlargement and progressive destruction of alveolar wall structures, and 4) airway responsiveness to methacholine including an augmented Rn value. In addition, ELT at a high dose was more effective than that at a low dose. This is the novel study to extensively analyze ELT-induced lung emphysema, and the analysis might be applied to future investigations that evaluate new therapeutic agents or risk factors for pulmonary emphysema. In particular, ALP in lung homogenates might be a new biomarker for the disease progression/exacerbation.
Nω-Carboxymethyl-arginine (CMA), Nω-carboxyethyl-arginine (CEA) and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) have been identified as L-arginine-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed by non-enzymatic reactions between reducing sugars such as glucose and amino groups in proteins. These AGEs are structurally analogous to endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) including NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and asymmetric NG,NG-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA). Increased plasma levels of these NOS inhibitors, and thus impaired generation of NO in vivo has been associated with the pathogenesis of vascular complications such as kidney failure and atherosclerosis. For these reasons we examined whether L-arginine-derived AGEs inhibit the activities of three L-arginine metabolizing enzymes including three isoforms of NOS (endothelium, neuronal and inducible NOS), dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) that catalyzes the hydrolytic degradation of L-NMMA and ADMA to L-citrulline, and arginase that modulates intracellular L-arginine bioavailability. We found that AGEs inhibited the in vitro activities of endothelium type NOS weakly (IC50 values of CMA, CEA and MG-H1 were 830, 3870 and 1280 μM, respectively) and were also potential endogenous inhibitors for arginase (IC50 values of CMA and CML were 1470 and 1060 μM), but were poor inhibitors for DDAH. These results suggest that the tested L-arginine- and L-lysine-derived AGEs appear not to impair NO biosynthesis directly.